The past two decades have seen increasing interests in the field of wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which have potential applications covering all aspects of the human life. The major issue in WSNs is power conservation since wireless sensors are usually battery-powered. In a typical sensor node, the wireless interface consumes the largest share of the power budget. Hence, an energy efficient medium access control (MAC) protocol is vital. The MAC protocol always adopts the duty cycling mechanism to reduce idle listening, which is the most significant energy wastage. The mechanism, however, has negative effects on latency and throughput performance. Meanwhile, an increasing number of prospective applications not only imposes requirements on energy efficiency but also on other Quality of Services (QoS) parameters. Therefore, it is great of importance to design new efficient MAC protocols, which meet the energy efficiency and QoS requirements. We first focus on designing energy efficient, low latency MAC protocols for low data rate WSNs. The traditional approach is letting a duty cycling MAC protocol forward packets via multiple hops in a cycle, i.e., the multi-hop MAC. However, the original multi-hop MA
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