Abstract—A face image can be represented by a combination of large-and small-scale features. It is well-known that the variations of illumination mainly affect the large-scalefeatures (low-frequency components), and not so much the small-scale features. Therefore, in relevant existing methods only the small-scale features are extracted as illumination-invariant features for face recognition, while the large-scale intrinsic features are always ignored. In this paper, we argue that both large-and small-scale features of a face image are important for face restoration and recognition. Moreover, we suggest that illumination normalization should be performed mainly on the large-scale features of a face image rather than on the original face image. A novel method of normalizing both the Small-and Large-scale (S&L) features of a face image is proposed. In thismethod, a single face image isfirstdecomposed into large-and small-scale features. After that, illumination normalization is mainly performed on the large-scale features, and only a minor correction is made on the small-scale features. Finally, a normalized face image is generated by combining the processed large-and small-scale features. In addition, an optional visual compensation step is suggested for improving the visual quality of the normalized image. Experiments on CMU-PIE, Extended Yale B, and FRGC 2.0 face databases show that by using the proposed method significantly better recognition performance and visual results can be obtained as compared to related state-of-the-art methods. Index Terms—Face recognition, illumination normalization, visual compensation. I
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