his manuscript summarizes the empirical research on the effects of transport user charges and taxes on low-income households. In the first section, I describe how finance fits into two emerging fields of equity research: social exclusion and environmental justice. These two fields inform why researchers should be concerned with finance and pricing beyond basic tax fairness principles from public finance. After that discussion, I assemble the empirical estimates from the research and draw some lessons both for policy and analysis. General gas and emissions charges are expected to cost low-income households about 0.2 percent of their annual income, without tax shifting. High-occupancy toll (HOT) lanes—a premium transport service—are expected to cost roughly the same, while comparatively high, comprehensive tolling schemes designed for vehicle miles traveled (VMT) reduction have estimated out-of-pocket costs at about 5 percent of household income for lower income households. Studies that consider benefits as well as costs tend to tell a different story: some toll schemes are beneficial to low-income households both in terms of congestion relief and air quality benefits. The manuscript ends with a critique of the methodology and concepts, including a conceptual frame for multi-level, geographic analysis and for broadening the scope of finance equity
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