mouth, and the effects of thirst. J Neurophysiol 90: 1865–1876, 2003. First published May 28, 2003; 10.1152/jn.00297.2003. In an eventrelated functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in humans it was shown, first, that water produces activations in cortical taste areas (in particular the frontal operculum/anterior insula which is the primate primary taste cortex, and the caudal orbitofrontal/secondary taste cortex) comparable to those produced by the prototypical tastants salt and glucose. Second, the activations in the frontal operculum/anterior insula produced by water when thirsty were still as large after the subjects had consumed water to satiety. Third, in contrast, the responses to water in the caudal orbitofrontal cortex were modulated by the physiological state of the body, in that responses to the oral delivery of water in this region were not found after the subjects had drunk water to satiety. Fourth, further evidence that the reward value or pleasantness of water is represented in the orbitofrontal cortex was that a positive correlation with th
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