Programmers of parallel systems require high-level tools to aid in analyzing the performance of applications. Performance tuning of parallel programs differs substantially from the analogous processes on sequential architectures for two main reasons: the inherent complexity of concurrent systems is greater, and the observability of concurrent systems is complicated by the effects instrumentation can have on the behavior of the system. The complexity of parallel architectures combined with non-determinism can make performance difficult to predict and analyze. Many approaches to help users to understand parallel programs have been proposed. This paper summarizes the problems associated with creating parallel performance measurement tools and describes some of the systems that have been built to solve these problems
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