# The Author(s) 2010. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com Abstract Mechanical circulatory support (MCS) frequently is used to treat medically refractory end-stage heart failure. Initially designed to be a bridge to transplantation, MCS also has proven itself as a durable therapy for patients who are not transplant candidates. As outcomes for patients with MCS have improved, research interest in device development has flourished, with many new device types under investigation. In addition to improvement of MCS devices, investigational work continues to achieve appropriate patient selection and complication management
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