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and anti-inflammatory forms of interleukin-1 in the tear fluid and conjunctiva of patients with dry-eye disease. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci

By Abraham Solomon, Dilek Dursun, Zuguo Liu, Yuhuan Xie, Angelo Macri and Stephen C. Pflugfelder

Abstract

PURPOSE. To compare the expression of the pro- and antiinflammatory forms of interleukin (IL)-1 in the tear fluid and conjunctival epithelium of normal eyes and those with dry-eye disease. METHODS. The concentrations of IL-1�, IL-1 � (precursor and mature forms), and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) were measured by ELISA in tear fluid samples obtained from normal individuals and patients with dry eye who had rosacea-associated meibomian gland disease (MGD) or Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) aqueous tear deficiency (ATD). These cytokines were also measured in normal tear fluid before and after nasal stimulation to induce reflex tearing. The relative expression of these cytokines was evaluated in conjunctival impression cytology specimens and conjunctival biopsy tissue obtained from normal subjects and SS ATD–affected patients using immunofluorescent staining. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 concentration and activity in the tear fluid were evaluated with gelatin zymography and with an MMP-9 activity assay kit, respectively. RESULTS. Compared with normal subjects, the concentration of IL-1 � and mature IL-1 � in the tear fluid was increased, and the concentration of precursor IL-1 � was decreased in patients with MGD (P � 0.05, P � 0.02, and P � 0.01, respectively) and SS ATD (P � 0.001, P � 0.02, and P � 0.001, respectively). There was no significant change in the concentration of IL-1�, precursor IL-1�, and IL-1Ra in reflex tear fluid, indicating that the lacrimal glands may secrete these cytokines. The activity of MMP-9, a physiological activator of IL-1�, was significantly elevated in the tear fluid of both dry-eye groups compared with normal subjects. A strong positive correlation was observed between the intensity of corneal fluorescein staining and th

Year: 2013
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