The rat dentate gyrus is unusual among mammalian brain regions in that it shows cell birth well into adulthood. During development, dentate gyrus cell birth is regulated by adrenal steroids. However, it is presently unknown whether cell division in the adult is also mediated by these same factors. In order to determine whether this is the case, we combined adrenalectomy, with or without corticosterone (CORT) replacement, and 3H-thymidine autoradiography, Nissl staining, and immunohistochemistry for the glial cell markers vimentin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) as well as for the neuronal marker neuron-specific enolase. Removal of circulating adrenal steroids resulted in a greater density of both GFAP-immunoreactive and vimentin-immunoreactive cells compared to sham-operated animals; CORT replacement prevented increases in both of these cell types. Th
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