The target of rapamycin (TOR) is a protein kinase with numerous functions in cell growth control. Some of these functions can be potently inhibited by rapamycin, an immunosuppressive and potential anticancer drug. TOR exists as part of two functionally distinct protein complexes. The functions of TOR complex 1 (TORC1) are effectively inhibited by rapamycin, but the mechanism for this inhibition remains elusive. The identification of TORC2 and recent reports that rapamycin can inhibit TORC2 functions, in some cases, challenge current models of TOR regulation. This review discusses the latest findings in yeast and mammals on the possible mechanisms that control TOR activity leading to its many cellular functions. Ó 2008 IUBMB IUBMB Life, 60(8): 483–496, 200
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