pointing also commonly occurs at the beginning of new narrative episodes and scenes, where it is the dominant gesture. In this context, pointing may mark the establishment of a new focus space (Grosz & Sidner, 1986). In adult narrations of cartoon stories, about three-quarters of all clauses are accompanied by gestures of one kind or another; of these, about 40% are iconic, 40% are beats, and the remaining 10% are divided between deictic and metaphoric gestures. In narrating films, the proportions of metaphoric and deictic gestures increase at the expense of iconic gestures (statistics from McNeill & Levy, 1982; McNeill, 1992). It is natural to wonder whether this variety of gestures is found in all languages / cultural situations. As mentioned above, emblems do vary widely from language community to language community. The four gesture types just described, however, have been found in narrations in a variety of languages: Tagalog, Swahili, Soviet Georgian, Chinese, etc. Conduit gestur..
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