National governments around the world have embraced national innovation as a key to 21st century economic success. Massive investments in scientific and technological training and infrastructure have been undertaken to underpin a significant shift away from heavy industry to high technology-based enterprise. National innovation strategies have not been uniformly successful. This paper suggests that issues of domestic culture, loyalty to the nation and commercial commitment to the country are pivotal to the success of government investments in science and technology. It suggests, at a conceptual level, that there are a series of innovation environments emerging, with sharp differences in outcome and economic impact, based largely around issues of cultural commitment and loyalty to the nation
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