This paper focuses on how cooperatives and mutual associations are governed. At the heart of these arrangements is an organisation's governing body or board. Paralleling developments in the private sector, the quality of governance of co-operatives has been questioned. Serious concerns have been raised both about the democratic legitimacy of boards and their effectiveness, for example the\ud ability of lay board members to effectively supervise senior managers, ensure probity and protect the interests of members and other relevant stakeholders
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