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Quantum magnetism of ultra-cold fermion systems with the symplectic symmetry

By Hsiang-hsuan Hung, Yupeng Wang and Congjun Wu

Abstract

We numerically study quantum magnetism of ultra-cold alkali and alkaline-earth fermion systems with large hyperfine spin $F=3/2$, which are characterized by a generic $Sp(N)$ symmetry with N=4. The methods of exact diagonalization (ED) and density-matrix-renormalization-group are employed for the large size one-dimensional (1D) systems, and ED is applied to a two-dimensional (2D) square lattice on small sizes. We focus on the magnetic exchange models in the Mott-insulating state at quarter-filling. Both 1D and 2D systems exhibit rich phase diagrams depending on the ratio between the spin exchanges $J_0$ and $J_2$ in the bond spin singlet and quintet channels, respectively. In 1D, the ground states exhibit a long-range-ordered dimerization with a finite spin gap at $J_0/J_2>1$, and a gapless spin liquid state at $J_0/J_2 \le 1$, respectively. In the former and latter cases, the correlation functions exhibit the two-site and four-site periodicities, respectively. In 2D, various spin correlation functions are calculated up to the size of $4\times 4$. The Neel-type spin correlation dominates at large values of $J_0/J_2$, while a $2\times 2$ plaquette correlation is prominent at small values of this ratio. Between them, a columnar spin-Peierls dimerization correlation peaks. We infer the competitions among the plaquette ordering, the dimer ordering, and the Neel ordering in the 2D system.Comment: 16 page

Topics: Condensed Matter - Quantum Gases
Year: 2011
DOI identifier: 10.1103/PhysRevB.84.054406
OAI identifier: oai:arXiv.org:1103.1926
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