In our current highly politicized social environment, every decision the Forest Service makes about the natural environment is likely to be contested. Even such fundamentally technical management decisions as road closures spark heated exchanges between different groups of forest users and advocates. As management of our national forests continues to shift away from production of wood fiber and toward management for multiple products and values, the issues surrounding the topic of road closures multiply as well. Who uses Forest Service roads today, and for what purposes? Who bears the cost of construction and maintenance? How are plan
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