Pattern transfer and process layering sequence constraints determine what practical three-dimensional structures can be micromachined. Three important interdependent technologies determine the limitations that bound device design. Resist and coating capabilities (predefinition) Lithographic image capabilities (structural definition) Structural creation through etching or plating (pattern definition) The two primary challenges to device pattern transfer are high aspect ratio and high topography requirements. These two structural challenges come out of the interdependent technologies mentioned above. This paper reviews these challenges as well as possible solutions that are being investigated. The purpose of this paper is to review the pattern transfer issues that pose challenges to micromachining design and manufacturing as well as their possible solutions. The motivation for this work is the critical nature of lithography as a technology that enables the advancement of th
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