In this research, an effort is made to analyze the costs of fare collection on heavy rail and motorbus systems in the U.S. Since existing ticketing and fare collection (TFC) systems are major elements of transit infrastructure and there are several new alternative TFC technologies available on the market, the need to evaluate the performance of existing TFC systems arises. However, very little research has been done, so far, to assess impacts of TFC technologies on capital and operating expenses in public transit. The two objectives of this research are: (1) to formulate a conceptual evaluation framework and a plan to assess the operating costs of existing TFC systems in transit and (2) to analyze the operating expenses associated with existing TFC systems on heavy rail and motorbus transit in the U.S. with the aid of the evaluation framework and plan. This research begins with a review of the current state of knowledge in the areas of transit TFC evaluation, the economics of public transit operations, and fare collection practices and technologies. It helps to determine the scope of work related to assessment of TFC operating costs on public transit and provides the basis for the development of
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