Instructional systems development (ISD) has recently come under attack to suggestions that it may not be an appropriate methodology for developing effective instruction (Gordon & Zemke, 2000). ISD is accused of being too slow and clumsy, of claiming to be a technology when it is not, of producing bad instruction, and of being out of touch with today’s training needs. Someone said, “It is a bad craftsman that blames his tools. ” It should be obvious to the thoughtful observer that the problem may be the implementation of ISD, not a systematic approach itself. At the highes
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