of superinfection, strengths and weaknesses of standard resistance assays, treatment interruptions, resistance to new antiretrovirals, and other topics. Sex took center stage at the 2003 Resistance Workshop. And the 200 assembled clinicians and scientists weren’t talking about viral sex—the term Jaap Goudsmit coined for recombination of two HIV strains . They were talking about the real thing, between women and men and between men and men. Introducing perhaps the most important clinical study of the workshop, Michael Kozal (Yale University) inspired the title of this article when he renamed his talk “Sex, drugs, and resistance. ” But his study was only one of many that explored the serpentine links entwining those three high-speed highways. Other researchers posed an important new question about HIV superinfection—Does it happen much more than we think?—while a few teams tracked some discouraging trends in transmission of drug-resistant virus. Clever mathematical modeling suggested how infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) can speed the spread of drug-resistant HIV, while a clutch of studies underscored the unreliability of some standard resistance assays. The meeting had its share of potentially good news, mostly involving new antiretrovirals or genotyping. And on
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