In the United States, energy consumption is increasing most rapidly in the commercial sector. Consequently, the commercial sector is becoming an increasingly important target for state and federal energy policies and also for utility-sponsored demand side management (DSM) programs. The rapid growth in commercial-sector energy consumption also makes it important for analysts working on energy policy and DSM issues to have access to energy end-use forecasting models that include more detailed representations of energy-using technologies in the commercial sector. These new forecasting models disaggregate energy consumption not only by fuel type, end use, and building type, but also by specific technology. Refrigeration's share of U.S. commercial-sector electricity consumption is 8%, which corresponds to 0.7 quads of primary energy consumption annually. Electricity consumption for refrigeration, however, is much more significant in particular building types than in the commercial sector as a whole. For example, refrigeration's share of electricity consumption for groceries, restaurants, and warehouses is 49%, 20 % and 35%, respectively. Although smaller in absolute size than the savings associated with other energy end uses such as lighting and space conditioning, the potential cost-effective energy savings from refrigeration for some building types are large enoug
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