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Phylogeny of Libellula Linnaeus (Odonata: Insecta)

By Frank Louis Carle and Karl M. Kjer


Phylogenetic analysis was performed on a set of 242 morphological characters. The taxon sample included 31 Libellula, and representative species from selected libeluline tribes, from all libellulid subfamilies, from all libelluloid families, from all anisopteran superfamilies, and Epiophlebia. Corduliinae was shown to be paraphyletic even among genera characterized by a well developed anal loop bisector. Sympetrini was found to be polyphyletic with Crocothemis the sister group to Libellulini. The traditional placement of Trameini, far from Libellulini is in doubt, because it is here placed as the sister group to Crocothemis + Libellulini. Kennedy’s phylogeny of Libellula was largely corroborated, with the following exceptions: the subgenera Libellula, Eolibellula, and Syntetrum form a monophyletic group which is the sister group to a clade including Belonia, Holotania, Neotetrum, and Eotainia subgenus nov. [type species Mesothemis composita Hagen]; and Eurothemis is determined to be the sister group of Ladona instead of Neotetrum. In addition we confirm Belonia to be monophyletic, and find Platetrum + Plathemis to form a monophyletic group, sister to Ladona + Eurothemis; these four subgenera together form the sister group to Libellula sensu stricto (s.s.)

Year: 2011
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