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RESEARCH ARTICLE Environmental Genome Shotgun Sequencing of the Sargasso Sea

By J. Craig Venter, Karin Remington, John F. Heidelberg, Aaron L. Halpern, Doug Rusch, Jonathan A. Eisen, Dongying Wu, Ian Paulsen, Karen E. Nelson, William Nelson, Derrick E. Fouts, Samuel Levy, Anthony H. Knap, Michael W. Lomas, Ken Nealson, Owen White, Holly Baden-tillson Cynthia Pfannkoch and Hamilton O. Smith


We have applied “whole-genome shotgun sequencing ” to microbial populations collected en masse on tangential flow and impact filters from seawater samples collected from the Sargasso Sea near Bermuda. A total of 1.045 billion base pairs of nonredundant sequence was generated, annotated, and analyzed to elucidate the gene content, diversity, and relative abundance of the organisms within these environmental samples. These data are estimated to derive from at least 1800 genomic species based on sequence relatedness, including 148 previously unknown bacterial phylotypes. We have identified over 1.2 million previously unknown genes represented in these samples, including more than 782 new rhodopsin-like photoreceptors. Variation in species present and stoichiometry suggests substantial oceanic microbial diversity. Microorganisms are responsible for most of the biogeochemical cycles that shape the environment of Earth and its oceans. Yet, these organisms are the least well understood on Earth, a

Year: 2011
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