Dissertation Abstract: I examine the relationship between minority status, social integration, and socially induced stress response. I document experiences of people who are in the minority by sex in the workplace using nationally-representative data and laboratory experiments, in which I collect biological measures of stress response. The dissertation explores how the interaction between social structures and individual physiological responses interact to create and maintain social systems, especially systems of inequality. I theorize that social arrangements influence biological outcomes, which in turn contribute to the reproduction of social inequality. This dissertation contributes a sociological understanding to the documented relationship between individual physiological responses and threats to status or hierarchy in a group – a relationship that has historically been interpreted in a manner that is demeaning to minority groups and empirically unfounded. In contrast, by taking a sociological approach to understanding the relationship between biology and society I reframe this relationship in a way tha
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