We show that MAEXP, the exponential time version of problems in complexity theory. It is still true that virtually the Merlin-Arthur class, does not have polynomial size cir- all of the theorems in computational complexity theory that cuits. This significantly improves the previous known result have reasonable relativizations do relativize (see [For94]). due to Kannan since we furthermore show that our result But we do have a small number of exceptions that arise does not relativize. This is the first separation result in com- from the area of interactive proofs. These results have preplexity theory that does not relativize. As a corollary to our viously always taken the form of collapses such as IP= separation result we also obtain that PEXP, the exponen- PSPACE [LFKN92, Sha92], MIP=NEXP [BFL91] and tial time version of PP is not in P=poly. PCP(O(1);O(logn))=NP [ALM+92]. In this paper we give the first reasonable nonrel-
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