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Detecting Modifications in Paper Documents: A Coding Approach

By Yogesh Sankarasubramaniam, Badri Narayanan and Kapali Viswanathan

Abstract

This paper presents an algorithm called CIPDEC (Content Integrity of Printed Documents using Error Correction), which identifies any modifications made to a printed document. CIPDEC uses an error correcting code for accurate detection of addition/deletion of even a few pixels. A unique advantage of CIPDEC is that it works blind – it does not require the original document for such detection. Instead, it uses fiducial marks and error correcting code parities. CIPDEC is also robust to paper-world artifacts like photocopying, annotations, stains, folds, tears and staples. Furthermore, by working at a pixel level, CIPDEC is independent of language, font, software, and graphics that are used to create paper documents. As a result, any changes made to a printed document can be detected long after the software, font, and graphics have fallen out of use. The utility of CIPDEC is illustrated in the context of tamper-proofing of printed documents and ink extraction for form-filling applications

Topics: Paper documents, modification detection, error correction, ink extraction, content integrity
Year: 2011
OAI identifier: oai:CiteSeerX.psu:10.1.1.182.1925
Provided by: CiteSeerX
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