Current scientific evidence, derived largely from studies in North America and Western Europe (NAWE), indicates that urban air pollution, 1 which is derived largely from combustion sources, causes a spectrum of health effects ranging from eye irritation to death. Recent assessments suggest that the impacts on public health may be considerable. This evidence has increasingly been used by national and international agencies to inform environmental policies, and quantification of the impact of air pollution on public health has gradually become a critical component in policy discussions as governments weigh options for the control of pollution. Quantifying the magnitude of these health impacts in cities worldwide, however, presents considerable challenges owing to the limited availability of information on both effects on health and on exposures to air pollution in many parts of the world. Man-made urban air pollution is a complex mixture with many toxic components. We have chose
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