Future routers must not only forward packets at high speeds, but also deal with nontrivial issues such as scheduling support for differential services, heterogeneous link technologies, and backward compatibility with a wide range of packet formats and routing protocols. In this article, the authors outline the design issues facing the next generation of backbone, enterprise, and access routers. The authors also present a survey of recent advances in router design, identifying important trends, concluding with a selection of open issues. the bandwidths of the input ports, packets are queued only at the outputs, and outers knit together the constituent networks of R the global Internet, creating the illusion of a uni-the router is called an output-queued router. Otherwise, queues may build up at the inputs, and the router is called an input-queued router. An output port store
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