I present a model in which weak institutions in the form of "Personal Rule" regimes compound the problem of ethnic divisions into one of bad governance because of reduced accountability of the leadership. As a consequence, the ruler can construct a kleptocratic regime in which he can steal from the citizens, included his own ethnic supporters, even though he is at the helm of a weak state. The model also predicts extensive use of patronage, and absence of investment in infrastructure. Hence, it fits the experience of bad governance, wasteful policies and kleptocracy in post-colonial Africa
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