Background and Purpose—Grafts of MHP36 cells have previously been shown to reduce dysfunction after global ischemia in rats. To test their efficacy after focal ischemia, MHP36 cells were grafted 2 to 3 weeks after transient intraluminal middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) in rats. Methods—MHP36 cells were implanted into the hemisphere contralateral to the lesion, with 8 deposits of 3 �L of cell suspension (25 000 cells per microliter). Sham grafted rats received equivalent volumes of vehicle. Three groups, sham-operated controls (n�11), MCAO�sham grafts (n�10), and MCAO�MHP36 grafts (n�11), were compared in 3 behavioral tests. Results—In the bilateral asymmetry test, MCAO�MHP36 grafted rats exhibited neglect before grafting but subsequently showed no significant dysfunction, whereas MCAO�sham grafted rats showed stable sensorimotor deficits over 18 weeks relative to controls. MCAO�sham grafted rats demonstrated spontaneous motor asymmetry and increased rotational bias after injection of dopamine agonists. MCAO�MHP36 and control groups exhibited no bias in either spontaneous or drug-induced rotation. In contrast to motor recovery, MCAO�MHP36 grafted rats showed no improvement relative to MCAO�sham grafted rats in spatial learning and memory in the water maze. MCAO produced large striatal and cortical cavitations in both occluded groups. Lesion volume was significantly reduced (P�0.05) in the MCAO�MHP36 grafted group. The majority of MHP36 cells were identified within the intact grafted hemisphere
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