Abstract: Feelings of ownership for learning are an important part of the learning process and should be encouraged in e-Learning environments. This paper presents two experimental studies investigating the effects of navigation aids on ownership for learning with electronic texts. Experimental findings revealed that designers should not assume that allowing learners greater control over their navigation through higher navigational freedom, or the ability to create their own navigation aids, will increase feelings of ownership for learning with electronic texts. The results of these studies have implications for those designing navigation in educational electronic texts
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