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62 December 2002/Vol. 45, No. 12 COMMUNICATIONSOF THE ACM By Kalle Lyytinen and Youngjin Yoo Issues and Challenges in Ubiquitous Computing



A fundamental measure of progress in computing involves rendering it as an inseparable part of our everyday experience while simultaneously making it disappear [2]. Radical improvements in microprocessor cost-performance ratios have pushed this process forward while drastically reducing computing-device form factors, enabling us to embed computers in many parts of our environments. In 40 years this change has transformed the early large “computing machines ” into compact devices that enable, mediate, support, and organize our daily activities. The next step in this evolution involves the move toward ubiquitous computing, in which computers will be embedded in our natural movements and interactions with our environments—both physical and social. Ubiquitous computing will help organize and mediate social interactions wherever and whenever these situations might occur. The idea of such an environment emerged more than a decade ago in Weiser’s [2] seminal article and its evolution has recently been accelerated by improved wireless telecommunications capabilities, open networks, continued increases in computing power, improved battery technology, and the emergence of flexible software architectures. Consequently, during the next five to ten years, ubiquitous computing will come of age and the challenge of developing ubiquitous services will shift from demonstrating the basic concept to integrating it into the existing computing infrastructure and building widely innovative mass-scale applications that will continue the computing evolution. The movement into the ubiquitous computing realm will integrate the advances from both mobile and pervasive computing. Though these terms are often used interchangeably, they are conceptually different and employ different ideas of organizing and managing computing services (see the accompanying figure). Mobile computing is fundamentally about increasing ou

Year: 2009
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