Background and Purpose—This study was aimed at the comparative analysis of serum concentrations of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and protein S-100B in patients with acute stroke. Methods—We investigated 32 patients with stroke symptoms consistent with cerebral ischemia in the anterior territory of vascular supply. Serial venous blood samples were taken after admission to the hospital and during the first 4 days after onset of stroke. Evaluation of lesion topography and volume of infarcted brain area was based on cranial CT data. The patients ’ clinical status was consecutively evaluated by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and the Barthel Index score at discharge from the hospital. Results—Protein S-100B and GFAP release was found to be significantly correlated (r�0.96; P�0.001). The release of both biochemical markers was associated with the volume of brain lesions (S-100B: r�0.957, P�0.0001; GFAP: r�0.955, P�0.0001) and the neurological status at discharge from the hospital (S-100B: r�0.821, P�0.0002; GFAP: r�0.717, P�0.0003). The highest correlation between both S-100B and GFAP serum concentration and Barthel score was calculated at the last time of blood sampling, 4 days after stroke onset (S-100B: r�0.621, P�0.001; GFAP: r�0.655, P�0.001). The release of both astroglia derived proteins differed between different subtypes of stroke. GFAP was found to be a more sensitive marker of brain damage in patients with smaller lacunar lesions or minor strokes. Conclusions—Our results indicate that postischemic release patterns of GFAP and S-100B protein may allow insight int
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