York, NY 10013, USA), except for brief excerpts in connection with reviews or scholarly analysis. Use in connection with any form of information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed is forbidden. The use in this publication of trade names, trademarks, service marks, and similar terms, even if they are not identified as such, is not to be taken as an expression of opinion as to whether or not they are subject to proprietary rights. Printed in the United States of America. (MVY) 987654321 springer.com Preface The International Mathematical Olympiad (IMO) is nearing its fiftieth anniversary and has already created a very rich legacy and firmly established itself as the most prestigious mathematical competition in which a high-school student could aspire to participate. Apart from the opportunity to tackle interesting and very challenging mathematical problems, the IMO represent
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