We study the problem of factoring univariate polynomials over finite fields. Under the assumption of the Extended Riemann Hypothesis (ERH), Gao [Gao01] designed a polynomial time algorithm that fails to factor only if the input polynomial satisfies a strong symmetry property, namely square balance. In this paper, we propose an extension of Gao’s algorithm that fails only under an even stronger symmetry property. We also show that our property can be used to improve the time complexity of best deterministic algorithms on most input polynomials. The property also yields a new randomized polynomial time algorithm.
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