We present a new approach to character skinning where divergence-free vector fields induced by skeletal motion, describe the velocity of skin deformation. The joint transformations for a pose relative to a rest pose create a bend deformation field, resulting in pose-dependent or kinematic skin deformations, varying smoothly across joints. The bend deformation parameters are interactively controlled to capture the varying deformability of bone and other anatomic tissue within an overall fold-over free and volume-preserving skin deformation. Subsequently, we represent the dynamics of skeletal motion, tissue elasticity, muscular tension and the environment as forces that are mapped to vortices at tissue interfaces. A simplified Biot-Savart law in the context of elastic deformation recovers a divergence-free velocity field from the vorticity. Finally, we apply a new stable technique to efficiently integrate points along their deformation trajectories. Adding these dynamic forces over a window of time prior to a given pose provides a continuum of user controllable kinodynamic skinning. A comprehensive implementation using a typical animator workflow in Maya shows our approach to be effective for complex character skinning
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