Mutual exclusion locks remain the de facto mechanism for concurrency control on shared-memory data structures. However, their apparent simplicity is deceptive: It is hard to design scalable locking strategies because locks can harbor problems such as priority inversion, deadlock, and convoying. Furthermore, scalable lock-based systems are not readily composable when building compound operations. In looking for solutions to these problems, interest has developed in nonblocking systems which have promised scalability and robustness by eschewing mutual exclusion while still ensuring safety. However, existing techniques for building nonblocking systems are rarely suitable for practical use, imposing substantial storage overheads, serializing nonconflicting operations, or requiring instructions not readily available on today’s CPUs. In this article we present three APIs which make it easier to develop nonblocking implementations of arbitrary data structures. The first API is a multiword compare-and-swap operation (MCAS) which atomically updates a set of memory locations. This can be used to advance a data structure from one consistent state to another. The second API is a word-based software transactional memory (WSTM) which can allow sequential code to be reused more directly than with MCAS and which provides better scalability when locations are being read rather than being updated
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