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The Graft-Versus-Myeloma Effect: Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease but Not Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease Prolongs Survival in Patients with Multiple Myeloma Receiving Allogeneic Transplantation

By Michele L. Donato, David S. Siegel, David H. Vesole, Phyllis McKiernan, Themba Nyirenda, Andrew L. Pecora, Melissa Baker, Stuart L. Goldberg, Anthony Mato, Andre Goy and Scott D. Rowley

Abstract

AbstractWe conducted a study of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) undergoing allogeneic transplantation to evaluate outcome parameters. Fifty-seven consecutive patients with MM received an allogeneic transplantation between 2004 and 2011 at our institution. Patients who had received at least 1 prior autologous transplantation were included. Twenty-six patients underwent allogeneic transplantation for consolidation after a response to their first autograft, and 30 patients received an allogeneic transplantation as salvage therapy. Donor source was evenly distributed between related and unrelated. The median follow-up was 52 months. Thirty-two (57.1%) patients achieved a complete response (CR). At 5 years, 49.2% of all patients were in CR. Sixteen patients received either donor lymphocyte infusions or immune suppression withdrawal for disease progression, with a 62.5% response rate. The 5-year overall survival (OS) for all patients was 59%. The 5-year OS for the 30 patients in the consolidation group was 82% compared with 38% for those in the salvage group. In multivariate analysis, 3 factors remained significantly associated with OS. These include being in the salvage group (hazard ratio [HR], 4.05; P = .0196), acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) (HR, 2.99; P = .034), and chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD), which was highly protective, with a 5-year OS of 78.8% for patients with cGVHD versus 42.6% for patients without cGVHD (HR .17, P = .008). Our data show that allogeneic transplantation for MM can lead to sustained remissions. aGVHD is significantly deleterious to OS and progression-free survival, whereas cGVHD is strongly favorable, supporting an important role for the graft-versus-myeloma effect

Publisher: American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Year: 2014
DOI identifier: 10.1016/j.bbmt.2014.04.027
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