Abolition of the G.L.C. led to a complex web of governmental institutions for London consisting of specific offices within central government departments, various appointed boards, and the boroughs and City of London. The Departments of Environment and Transport both had regional offices governing London. The Government Office for London was perhaps the most important of reforms instituted after 1992. The post 1986 framework for government relied heavily on government appointed or controlled institutions. Fragmentation led to pressures for joint arrangements and inter-borough co-operation, emphasising the need to overcome the fractious behaviour that had characterised relations prior to 1986. Abolition transferred significant powers to the boroughs and these, together with new responsibilities, enhanced their authority. Different forms of partnerships emerged, including city-wide, multi-borough and private-public committees
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