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Exploring Systemic Autoimmunity in Thyroid Disease Subjects

By Thushani Siriwardhane, Karthik Krishna, Vinodh Ranganathan, Vasanth Jayaraman, Tianhao Wang, Kang Bei, John J. Rajasekaran and Hari Krishnamurthy

Abstract

Introduction. Individuals with one autoimmune disease are at risk of developing a second autoimmune disease, but the pathogenesis or the sequential occurrence of multiple autoimmune diseases has not been established yet. In this study, we explored the association and sequential occurrence of antibodies in thyroid disease and systemic autoimmune disease subjects. We evaluated thyroid hormones, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid autoantibodies, anti-thyroperoxidase (anti-TPO), and anti-thyroglobulin (Tg) to comprehend the association with systemic autoimmune autoantibodies, anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA), and autoantibodies to extractable nuclear antigens (ENA) in subjects with thyroid-related symptoms. Methods. A total of 14825 subjects with thyroid-related symptoms were tested at Vibrant America Clinical Laboratory for thyroid markers (TSH, FT4, anti-TPO, and anti-Tg) and an autoimmune panel (ANA panel and ENA-11 profile) from March 2016 to May 2018. Thyroid-positive (based on TSH and FT4 levels), anti-TPO-positive, and anti-Tg-positive subjects were assessed for the prevalence of ANA and anti-ENA antibodies. A 2-year follow-up study was conducted to assess the sequential order of appearance of autoimmune markers in thyroid and systemic autoimmune diseases. Results. In the retrospective analysis, 343/1671 (20.5%), 2037/11235 (18.1%), and 1658/9349 (17.7%) of thyroid+, anti-TPO+, and anti-Tg+ subjects were found to be seropositive for ANA. Anti-ENA was detected in a higher prevalence than ANA with 475/1671 (28.4%), 3063/11235 (27.3%), and 2511/9349 (26.9%) in the same groups of subjects, respectively. Our results are found to be much higher than the reported prevalence of anti-ENA in general population. During the 2-year follow-up study, anti-TPO appeared significantly earlier than ANA and anti-ENA in an average of 253 (±139) and 227 (±127) days, respectively. Conclusions. A high prevalence of anti-ENA and ANA was found to be coexisting with autoimmune thyroid disease subjects, with anti-TPO occurring prior to the onset of ANA and anti-ENA. Therefore, frequent follow-ups and evaluation of ANA and anti-ENA in subjects with anti-TPO positivity would be beneficial in early detection of other systemic autoimmune diseases

Topics: Immunologic diseases. Allergy, RC581-607
Publisher: Hindawi Limited
Year: 2018
DOI identifier: 10.1155/2018/6895146
OAI identifier: oai:doaj.org/article:c077c001655341afaf43556a34d27394
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