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Chemical and pharmacognostical characterization of two Malaysian plants both known as Ajisamat

By Tengku Azlan S. Tengku Mohamad, Humera Naz, Ratni S. Jalal, Khatijah Hussin, Mohd R. Abd Rahman, Aishah Adam and Jean-Frédéric F. Weber


Ajisamat, an herb commonly used as an aphrodisiac in the Malaysian traditional medicine, corresponds to two different species from different families - Salacia macrophylla Blume, Celastraceae, and Prismatomeris glabra (Korth.) Valeton, Rubiaceae. Macromorphological inspection of the vegetative parts both plants reveals only a slight difference in the arrangement of the petioles. Microscopic investigation of the plants roots used as crude drugs revealed however distinctive anatomical features. Prismatic calcium oxalate crystals and banded paratracheal parenchyma are characteristics of S. macrophylla while P. glabra displays an abundance as crystals. Other features such as vessels diameters and arrangements are also of diagnostic importance. Some of these characters were also identified in the powder of thes e plant materials and proposed for diagnostic purpose. The values for extraction of ethanol and water as well as total ash, acid-insoluble ash, water-soluble ash and sulfated ash were determined for both plants. Phytochemical studies were carried out on hexane and chloroform extracts of S. macrophylla and methanolic extract of P. glabra. S. macrophylla was shown to contain highly oxidized pentacyclic triterpenes while P. glabra contains anthraquinones. The pharmacognostical and phytochemical information can be utilised as the identification tools for Salacia macrophylla and Prismatomeris glabra Keywords: Ajisamat, Salacia macrophylla, Prismatomeris glabra, Pharmacognostic features, Anthraquinones, Oxidized triterpene

Topics: Pharmacy and materia medica, RS1-441
Publisher: Elsevier
Year: 2013
DOI identifier: 10.1590/S0102-695X2013000500002
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