Location of Repository

The Anonymity of African American Serial Killers: From Slavery to Prisons, A Continuum of Negative Imagery

By Allan LeRoy Branson

Abstract

Some images (pp. 266, 267, 271, 272, 275) in the electronic version of this thesis differ to those used in the paper copy due to copyright restrictions.Race-based perceptions regarding African American males have created the belief that, although these men are frequently associated with crime, they do not engage in serial murder. That conviction reflects a cultural bias whereby white male serial murderers arguably have been given an iconic status within popular culture, and the “anti-hero” traits accorded them are denied to their African-American counterparts, rendering the latter invisible. A combination of critical discourse analysis, case studies, and quantitative analysis of social artefacts provide support for this thesis. An overview of the significant impact of slavery, the creation of media imagery regarding criminality from the late nineteenth century to the present, and the overrepresentation of African Americans in the penal system provide a framework to examine how racism in the U.S. has evolved, how multiple forms of popular media have shaped perceptions of both blacks and serial murderers, and how the FBI’s criminal profiling matrix developed in accord with these cognitive patterns. All combine to create a dangerous delusion that blinds law enforcement to possible perpetrators of serial murder. Significantly, the case of the D.C. Snipers and other black serial killers are examined to demonstrate the biases inherent in social and cultural attitudes to such crimes and the consequences for the continuing anonymity of black serial murderers

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 2011
OAI identifier: oai:lra.le.ac.uk:2381/9962

Suggested articles

Preview

Citations

  1. (1995). A case of spree serial murder with suggested diagnostic opinions.”
  2. (2003). A Clinical Approach to Deductive Behavioral Profiling. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation).
  3. (2006). A Death in
  4. (1993). A Foucault Primer:Discourse, Power and the Subject. Melbourne:
  5. (2009). A History of British Serial Killing.
  6. (2006). A key collar in Phoenix.” Retrieved
  7. (1977). A review of studies of criminality among twins.” In
  8. (2001). A supplement to Mental Health: A Report of The Surgeon General
  9. (2002). A window shot out at Michael’s Craft store in Aspen Hill,
  10. (1993). African-Americans and serial homicide.”
  11. (2002). age 39, was shot and killed while pushing a lawnmower in
  12. (2002). age 55, shot and wounded in the parking lot of a restaurant.
  13. (2002). age 55, was shot and killed in the parking lot of Shoppers Food Warehouse in
  14. (2003). Alienable Rights: The Exclusion of African Americans in a White Man’s Land,
  15. (1992). Along Came a Spider.
  16. (1991). American Psycho.
  17. (2004). An empirical test of Holmes and Holmes’s serial murder typology.”
  18. (2006). An Examination of the Relationship between Childhood Abuse and Sexual Offending in Incarcerated African American Males. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation.)
  19. (2006). An Invisible Man: The Hunt for a Serial Killer Who Got Away With a Decade of Murder.
  20. (2000). and deliquency: Sorting out some class and race effects.”
  21. (1999). Antisocial Personality Disorder: An Epidemiological Perspective. London: The Royal College of Psychiatrists.
  22. (1990). Assessment of psychopathy in male young offenders.”
  23. (2004). Author of The Devil in the White City.
  24. (2006). B.T.K. Strangler versus Wichita Police Department: The significance of serial murder media relations.”
  25. (1990). Basics of Qualitative Research: Grounded Theory Procedures and Techniques.
  26. (2005). Before and after the Central Park jogger: When legal cases become social causes.”
  27. (1997). Behavior and physiology of social stress in female cynomolgus monkeys.” Artherosclerosis.
  28. (2005). Between Good and Evil.
  29. (2007). Beyond social deviance substance use disorders and the dimensions of psychopathy.
  30. (2007). Black criminal stereotypes and racial profiling.”
  31. (2001). Black Image in the White Mind: Media and Race in America. Chicago:
  32. (1982). Black Images in American Films, 1896-1954: The Interplay between Civil Rights and Film Culture.
  33. (1989). Black offenders, criminal courts, and Philadelphia society in the late eighteenth-century.”
  34. (1967). Black Skin, White Masks.
  35. (2002). Blackface: Reflections on African-Americans and the Movies.
  36. (1972). Blacks in American Films: Today and Yesterday.
  37. (2005). Blink: Thinking Without Thinking.
  38. (2002). Body Dump.
  39. (2003). Case Study Research Design and Methods. Thousand Oaks,
  40. (1997). Cat and Mouse.
  41. (2002). Catch me before I kill more: Seriality as modern monstrosity.”
  42. (1988). Cellar of Horror: The Story of Gary Heidnik.
  43. (1998). Chemical Immbalances and Criminal Violence.”
  44. (1992). Child sexual abuse histories among African American college students: A preliminary study.”
  45. (1930). Civilization and its Discontents
  46. (2002). Claudine Lee Parker, age 52, shot and killed in front of a liquor store in Montgomery Alabama.
  47. (1999). Code of the Street.
  48. (2002). Conceptualization and measurement of celebrity worship.”
  49. (2002). Conrad Johnson, age 35, killed while standing on the top step of his bus in the Aspen Hill area near Silver Spring,
  50. (2005). Conspicuous consumption: The figure of the serial killer as cannibal in the age of capitalism.”
  51. (1998). Contemporary Perspectives on Serial Murder. Thousand Oaks,
  52. (2000). Contents and correlates of whites’ and blacks’ racial attitudes .”
  53. (1985). Contributions to psychiatric consultation in the investigation of serial murder.”
  54. (2007). Cortisol moderates the relationship between testosterone and aggression in delinquent male adolescents.”
  55. (2001). Crime and Social Exclusion.” The Oxford Handbook of Criminology. Oxford:
  56. (2007). Crime, film and criminology: Recent sex-crime movies.”
  57. (1992). Crimes Classification Manual: A Standard System for Investigating and Classifying Violent Crimes.
  58. (2004). Criminal Profiling and Serial Killers: A Case Study. (Unpublished master’s thesis).
  59. (1993). Criminal Shadows, Unlocking the Minds of Serial Killers and Sexual Predators—and Cracking Cases.
  60. (2009). Criminologist and Adrian A. Kragen Professor of Law,
  61. (1999). Critic’s notebook; A thematic feast of avant-garde videos.” Holmes and DeBurger.
  62. (1997). Critical discourse analysis.” In
  63. (1994). Cross-race facial recognition: Failure of the contact hypothesis.
  64. (1994). Dances with werewolves: America’s fascination with serial killers is reaching an all-time high and may be fueling their deadly deeds.” Retrieved
  65. (2001). Dark Dreams: Sexual Homicide and the Criminal Mind.
  66. (2004). Darkly Dreaming Dexter.
  67. (1992). Dead Ends: The Pursuit, Conviction, and Execution of Female Serial Killer Aileen Wournos, the Damsel of Death.
  68. (2001). Deadly symbiosis: When ghetto and prison meet and mesh.”
  69. (2002). Dean Harold Meyers, age 53, killed at the Battlefield Sunoco gas station,
  70. (1998). Death and Life in America’s Wound Culture.
  71. (1998). Deductive criminal profiling: Comparing applied methodologies between inductive and deductive criminal profiling techniques.” Retrieved
  72. (1990). Deranged: The Shocking True Story of America’s Most Fiendish Killer.
  73. (2003). Devil in the White City.
  74. (2005). Discourse analysis and the critical use of Foucault.” Paper presented at the Australian Association for Research in Education,
  75. (2009). Diversity, R.I.F? An organizational analysis of gender and racial gaps in downsizing.” Downsizing and Diversity (draft). Presented at
  76. (2006). Do black and white youths differ in levels of psychopathic traits? A meta-analysis of the sociopathy checklist measures.”
  77. (2006). Elephants never forget…and can’t forgive.” Retrieved
  78. (2006). Empowerment in Practice: From Analysis to Implementation.
  79. (1976). English origins of early
  80. (2006). Evil Eyes.
  81. (2004). Examination of structured interview ratings across time: The effects of applicant race, rater race, and panel composition.”
  82. (2001). Exploratory Research in the Social Sciences. Thousand Oaks,
  83. (2006). Extreme celebrity worship, fantasy proneness and dissociation: Developing the measurement and understanding of celebrity worship within a clinical personality context.” Personality and Individual Differences,
  84. (2005). Extreme Killing: Understanding Serial and Mass Murder. Thousand Oaks,
  85. (2005). Extremes of otherness: Media images of social exclusion.”
  86. (2005). Federal Bureau of Investigation.
  87. (1979). Femicide: Speaking the unspeakable.” Retrieved
  88. (2008). Femicide: The politicizing of killing women.”
  89. (1980). Folk devils and Moral Panics:
  90. (2005). Freakonomics: A Rogue Economist Explores the Hidden Side of Everything.
  91. (2003). From animal cruelty to serial murder: applying the graduation hypothesis.”
  92. (2010). from http://www.ferris.edu/jimcrow/brute/
  93. (2007). from http://www.projectimplicit.net/generalinfo.php
  94. (2002). From slavery to mass incarceration.” Retrieved August 11,
  95. (2003). From spicy to subversive.” The Village Voice.
  96. (2003). Gary Ridgway, the Green River Killer: The Story of America’s Most Prolific Serial Murderer, Told by the Reporters Who Covered the Case from the Beginning. Seattle: King County Journal.
  97. (1998). General Information, Project Implicit.
  98. (2009). Genesis: The Bullet was Meant for Me, D.C. Sniper Story Untold.
  99. (2000). Geographic Profiling.
  100. (1995). Ghosts of Mississippi: The Murder of Medgar Evers, the Trials of Byron DeLaBeckwith and the Haunting of the New South.
  101. (2007). Governing through Crime: How the War on Crime Transformed American Democracy and Created a Culture of Fear.
  102. (2005). Green River, Running Red: The Real Story of the Green River Killer, America’s Most Deadliest Serial Killer.
  103. (2002). Holler If You Hear Me: Searching for Tupac Shakur.
  104. (2002). Hong Im Ballenger, age 45, shot and killed in the parking lot of Beauty Depot in Baton Rouge,
  105. (2005). How the media compound urban problems.”
  106. (2001). Hunting Humans.
  107. (1993). Hunting the Devil: The Pursuit, Capture and Confession of the Most Savage Serial Killer in History.
  108. (1997). I Have Lived In The Monster: A Report from the Abyss.
  109. (2007). Impulsivity, anger, and psychopathy: The moderating effect of ethnicity.”
  110. (1995). Intellectuals or technicians: The urgent role of theory in educational studies.”
  111. (2004). Into the Minds of Madmen”: How the FBI’s Behavioral Science Unit Revolutionized Crime Investigation.
  112. (2002). Iran Brown, age 13, wounded as he arrived at his middle school in Bowie,
  113. (1999). James Byrd,
  114. (1992). Jeffrey Dahmer.
  115. (2002). Jeffrey Hopper, age 35, wounded while walking to his car from the Ponderosa restaurant in
  116. (2002). Jerry Ray Taylor, age 60, shot and killed on a golf course in Tucson, Arizona. Link to the D.C. Snipers is inconclusive.
  117. (2006). Jim Crow’ Laws.” Retrieved
  118. (2006). Just Justice, A study into black young people’s experiences of the youth justice system.” London: The Children’s Society.
  119. (2002). Kellie Adams, age 24, shot and wounded outside a liquor store in Montgomery Alabama.
  120. (2002). Kenneth Bridges, age 53, killed at the Four-Mile Fork Exxon gas station, Route 1, Spottsylvania County,
  121. (1983). Killer Clown: The John Wayne Gacy Murders.
  122. (1997). Killers among Us.
  123. (1985). Language and the Nuclear Arms Debate: Nukespeak Today. London and Dover, NH: Frances Printer.
  124. (1994). Leading the public: The media’s focus on crime shaped sentiment.” The Public Perspective,
  125. (2003). Leaving Atlanta.
  126. (2002). Linda Franklin, age 47, killed in the parking garage at Home Depot in Seven Corners Shopping Center,
  127. (2004). Little Scarlet.
  128. (2002). Lori-Lewis-Rivera, age 25, killed while vacuuming her minivan at a Shell gas station,
  129. (2000). Losing the Race: Self Sabotage in Black America.
  130. (1994). Mammy and Uncle Mose: Black Collectibles and American Stereotyping. Bloomington and Indianapolis, IN:
  131. (2006). Many DNA matches aren’t acted on.” Retrieved
  132. (2004). Mass imprisonment and the life course: Race and class inequality in the U.S.
  133. (2002). Masters of Death.
  134. (2002). me one of the happiest memories of your childhood?
  135. (2005). Media and Ethnic Minorities. Edinburgh:
  136. (1979). Men Who Rape: The Psychology of the Offender.
  137. (2002). Million A. Woldemariam, age 41, shot and killed in front of a liquor store in
  138. (1995). Mind Hunter: Inside the FBI’s Elite Serial Crime Unit.
  139. (2009). Modern serial killers.”
  140. (2007). Monsters Inc.: Serial killers and consumer culture.”
  141. (2002). Muhammed Rashid, age 32, shot and wounded outside a liquor store in Brandywine,
  142. (2005). Murder and mayhem in the media.” In
  143. (2004). My Life among the Serial Killers.
  144. (1985). Narcissism: Denial of the True Self.
  145. (1973). Narratives of Negro crime in New England,
  146. (2005). Natural Born Celebrities, Serial Killers
  147. (1994). Networks doubled crime coverage in ’93 despite flat violence levels in U.S.
  148. (2007). News content studies, media group methods and discourse analysis: A comparison of approaches.”
  149. (2007). News, media,victims and crime.”
  150. (2007). No Place Safe, A Family Memoir.
  151. (1977). of World Literature
  152. (2004). Offender profiling and investigative psychology.”
  153. (1994). Official stories: Media coverage of American crime policy.”
  154. (1764). On Crimes and Punishments.
  155. (2001). On the malleability of automatic attitudes: Combating automatic prejudice with images of admired and disliked individuals.”
  156. (1989). Organizational Ecology. Harvard College:
  157. (1992). Out of the Shadows, Understanding Sexual Addiction.
  158. (2009). Paradigms of Meaning.” In
  159. (2002). Pascal Charlot, age 72, killed while crossing the street at Georgia Avenue and Kalmia Road,
  160. (1998). Pathological narcissism and serial homicide: Review and case study.”
  161. (2005). Penal excess and surplus meaning:
  162. (2006). Philadelphia Police Detective, Homicide Unit.
  163. (2006). Phoenix Suspect: I’m Innocent.” Retrieved
  164. (1987). Policing Desire: Pornography, AIDS and the Media.
  165. (2008). Policing the crisis revisited: The state, masculinity, fear of crime and racism.”
  166. (2000). Policy responses to social exclusion: Towards inclusion?” Buckingham:
  167. (2005). Post Traumatic Slave Syndrome.
  168. (1983). Power, Crime and Mystification.
  169. (1980). Power/Knowledge: Selected Writings and Other Interviews 1972-1977.
  170. (1994). Predator criminals as media icons.” Retrieved
  171. Predisposition to petty criminality in Swedish adoptees: genetic and environmental heterogeneity.”
  172. (2002). Premkumar A. Walekar, age 54, killed at a Mobil station in
  173. (1996). Profiling Violent Crimes: An Investigative Tool. Thousand Oaks,
  174. (2007). Projecting the prison: The depiction of the uncanny in The Shawshank Redemption.” Crime,
  175. (1967). Psychiatric illness in the families of convicted criminals: A study of 519 first degree relatives.”
  176. (2000). Psycho Paths: Tracking the Serial Killer through Contemporary American Film and Fiction. Carbondale and Edwardsville, IL: Southern Illinois
  177. (1902). Psychopathia Sexualis.
  178. (1981). Psychopathology of Homicide.
  179. (2004). Psychopathy and comorbidity in a young offender sample: Taking a closer look at psychopathy’s potential importance over disruptive behavior disorders.”
  180. (2001). Psychopathy and recidivism in adolescent sex offenders.”
  181. (2004). Race and Crime: A Biosocial Analysis.
  182. (1998). Race and criminalization: Black Americans and the punishment industry.” In
  183. (1982). Race ideology in American history.” In
  184. (2002). Racial and ethnic differences in psychopathic personality.”
  185. (1995). Racial classification in criminology: The reproduction of racialized crime.”
  186. (2009). Racist ideology and black abnormality in The Birth of a
  187. (2002). Readme First for a Users Guide to Qualitative Methods.
  188. (2000). Red Dragon.
  189. (1998). Researching serial murder: Methodological and definitional problems.”
  190. (1995). Review Article: The Bell Curve by Herrnstein and
  191. (1977). Roots [television mini-series]. United States. David Wolper Productions.
  192. (1976). Roots: The Saga of an American Family.
  193. (2002). Rupinder “Benny” Oberoi, age 22, shot and wounded outside a beer and wine store in Silver Springs,
  194. (2002). Sarah Ramos, age 34, killed on a bench near a retirement community in Silver Spring,
  195. (1946). Secret Missions: The Story of an Intelligence Officer.
  196. (1988). Seductions of Crime: Moral and Sensual Attractions in Doing Evil.
  197. (1988). Self and others: Studies in social personality and autobiography.” In
  198. (1992). Self as narrative: The place of life history.” In
  199. (2006). Serial Crime: Theoretical and Practical Issues in Behavioural Profiling.
  200. (2006). Serial killer Danny Rolling executed.” Retrieved October 26,
  201. (2009). Serial Killers: Hunting Britons and Their Victims. Sherfield on Loddon,
  202. (2004). Serial Killers: The Method and Madness of Monsters—The Definitive History of the Phenomenon of Serial Murder.
  203. (1988). Serial murder in England 1940-1985.”
  204. (1997). Serial Murder: Motive and Meaning. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). The City
  205. (2002). Serial Murderers and their Victims.
  206. (1991). Serial murderers: Early proposed developmental model and typology.” Psychotherapy and Private Practice,
  207. (1989). Sex Murder and Sex Aggression: Phenomenology, Psychopathology, Psychodynamics, and Prediction.
  208. (2004). Sex Sells! The Media’s Journey from Repression to Obsession.
  209. (1986). Sexual homicide, a motivational model.”
  210. (1992). Sexual Homicide, Patterns and Motives.
  211. (2007). Sexual homicide: A spatial analysis of 25 Years of death in Los Angeles.”
  212. (2006). Shadow Man.
  213. (2004). Signal crimes and signal disorders: Notes on deviance as communicative action,”
  214. (1988). Silence of the Lambs.
  215. (2006). Snakes in Suits.
  216. (2003). Sniper: Inside the Hunt for the Killers who Terrorized the Nation.
  217. (1997). Sober-state Cortisol as a predictor of drunken violence.”
  218. (1987). Social space and symbolic power.”
  219. (2006). Some thoughts on the psychological roots of the behaviour of serial killers as narcissists: An object relations perspective.” Social Behaviour and Personality,
  220. (2010). Supervisory Special Agent, assigned to the National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime/Child Abduction Unit,
  221. (1987). Television Culture.
  222. (2003). Tent of Miracles.
  223. (1995). The Alienist.
  224. (2010). The Anonymity of African American Serial Killers.” Crime Culture,
  225. (1972). The Archaeology of Knowledge,
  226. (2009). The Atlanta Child Murders, The Night Stalker.
  227. (1999). The Atlanta Youth Murders and the Politics of Race.
  228. (1969). The Atlantic Slave Trade: A Census.
  229. (1965). The Autobiography of Malcom X.
  230. (1997). The Bell Curve Flattened.” Retrieved
  231. (1994). The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life.
  232. (1996). The Bell Curve: On race, social class, and epidemiologic research.”
  233. (1974). The Black Book.
  234. (2009). The Brute Caricature. Jim Crow Museum of Racist Memorabilia.
  235. (2001). The Burning Massacre: Destruction and the Tulsa Race Riot of
  236. (2005). The carceral” and “Governmentality.”
  237. (1999). The Cookie Cutter.
  238. (2001). The Culture of Control: Crime and Social Order in Contemporary Society.
  239. (2006). The D.C. Sniper Shootings. San Diego:
  240. (2007). The decisions and discussions inside NBC News during the Imus firestorm.”
  241. (1975). The effects of race and sex on proxemic behaviour in an interview setting.”
  242. (1971). The effects of race on one-to-one helping interviews.”
  243. (2002). The Envy of the World, On Being a Black Man in America.
  244. (1998). The Evil That Men Do: FBI Profiler Roy Hazelwood’s Journey into the Minds of Sexual Predators.
  245. (1978). The History of Sexuality, Vol. I, An Introduction,
  246. (2007). The history of the idea of race…and why it matters.” The American Anthropological Association. Paper presented on 14-17
  247. (2007). The history of violence: Mega cases of serial murder, selfpropelling narratives, and reader engagement.”
  248. (2005). The Human Predator: A Historical Chronicle of Serial Murder and Forensic Investigation.
  249. (2007). The influence of a serial killer on changes in fear of crime and the use of protective measures: A survey-based case study of
  250. (2002). The Killers among Us (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River,
  251. (1987). The Ku Klux Klan in America: The Fiery Cross.
  252. (1983). The List. Atlanta: Philmay Enterprises
  253. (1988). The Lust Killer.
  254. (1980). The Man Who Kills Boys: The John Wayne Gacy,
  255. (1941). The Mask of Sanity, An Attempt to Clarify Some Issues About the So-Called Psychopathic Personality. Georgia: C.
  256. (1973). The Mind of Adolph Hitler: The Secret Wartime Report.
  257. (2007). The Museum of Broadcast Communications,
  258. (2007). The N Word.
  259. (1970). The Negro in Films.
  260. (2005). The New-Brutality Film: Race and Affect in Contemporary Hollywood Cinema.
  261. (1996). The Night Stalker.
  262. (1970). The Order of Things: An Archaeology of the Human Sciences.
  263. (2004). The organized/disorganized typology of serial murder,
  264. (1959). The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life.
  265. (1989). The presumptive role of fantasy in serial sexual homicide.”
  266. (2006). The problem of race as a social construct.”
  267. (1996). The Real War on Crime.
  268. (1999). The relationship of animal abuse to violence and other forms of antisocial behavior.”
  269. (2000). The Reproduction of Evil: A Clinical and Cultural Perspective.
  270. (1996). The Rise of the Network Society.
  271. (1995). The Riverman: Ted Bundy And I Hunt for the Green River Killer.
  272. (2003). The Serial Killer Files.
  273. (1997). The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade,
  274. (2005). The Sociopath Next Door.
  275. (1903). The Souls of Black Folks.
  276. (2004). The star’s image: Victimization and celebrity culture.”
  277. (2007). The State of Black America
  278. (2005). The state of the field of criminology.”
  279. (1980). The Stranger Beside Me,
  280. (1963). The threat to kill.”
  281. (1990). The UnderClass.” Retrieved August 16,
  282. (2003). The Unknown Darkness: Profiling the Predators Among Us.
  283. (1963). The Wretched of the Earth.
  284. (1978). Theoretical Sensitivity: Advances in the Methodology of Grounded Theory. Mill
  285. (2005). Theorising the puzzle that is Harold Shipman.”
  286. (1976). They Came Before Columbus: The African Presence in Ancient America.
  287. (1972). Thoughts on narcissism and narcissistic rage.”
  288. (2010). Threat level: FBI lab gives short shrift to missing person cases.”
  289. (2003). Three Weeks in October: The Manhunt for the Serial Sniper.
  290. (2001). Toms, Coons, Mulattoes, Mammies, and Bucks: An Interpretive History of Blacks in American Films.
  291. (1981). trans.1994). Simulacra and Simulation.
  292. (2009). Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen.
  293. (1997). Trauma in children of Holocaust survivors: transgenerational effects.”
  294. (2003). Tupac: Resurrection. United States. Amaru Entertainment Inc.
  295. (2003). Ultimate Punishment: A Lawyer’s Reflections on Dealing with the Death Penalty.
  296. (1994). Using Murder: The Social Construction of Serial Homicide.
  297. (2001). Views of child sexual abuse in two cultural communities: An exploratory study among
  298. (1999). What was really great about the Great Society: The truth behind the conservative myths.” Retrieved
  299. (2003). When Women Kill: Questions of Agency and Subjectivity.
  300. (2006). White Victims, Black Villains: Gender, Race and Crime News
  301. (2007). Who is the celebrity in advertising? Understanding dimensions of celebrity images.”
  302. (1999). Why They Kill.
  303. (2005). Winning the Race: Beyond the Crisis in Black America.
  304. (1999). Without Conscience: The Disturbing World of the Psychopaths among Us.
  305. (2005). Young black men and urban policing in the United States.”

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.