Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

A Qualitative Study of Eastern International Students' Adjustment to Western Culture and Western Pedagogy in a British University

By Linda Akl

Abstract

This qualitative study explored the cultural, social, and academic experiences of\ud international students in a British university (MTU), in the current geopolitical\ud climate. The case study involved 18 international students and 22 academic and\ud support staff members. Ethnography and content analysis for interviews during three\ud phases yielded results that apply to Hofstede and Hofstede’s (2005) Cultural\ud Dimensions Model, Devito’s (2004) Culture Shock Model, and Maslow’s (1954,\ud 1970, and 1984) Hierarchy for Human Needs. The foregoing structures joined\ud Western pedagogy in Liberal Secular Ideology to generate the Culture, Human Needs,\ud and Western Pedagogy Model (CHNP). The CHNP Model inferred that culture shock\ud triggered the international students’ regression in satisfying their human needs after\ud they immersed themselves in British culture. First, human needs may exist across\ud cultures, but the process for satisfying human needs is culture specific. Second,\ud human needs satisfaction affects culture shock adjustment and Western pedagogy\ud competency. Third, international students’ identities were at risk through each culture\ud shock and human needs stage, and as they attempted to develop competency in\ud Western pedagogy. The policy implication for supporting international students is that\ud an academic environment that ignores IS’ cultural differences, human needs, and their\ud unfamiliarity with Western pedagogy can destroy IS’ motivation to fulfil their\ud academic potential

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 2010
OAI identifier: oai:lra.le.ac.uk:2381/9949

Suggested articles

Citations

  1. (2003a) Case Study Research: Design and Methods, 3rd edn,
  2. (2003b) Applications of Case Study Research, 2nd edn,
  3. (2006). (Be) Coming, (Be) Longing: ways in which international students talk about themselves,
  4. (2007). 9/11 and the cult of death,
  5. (2008). 9% from a non-White ethnic group
  6. (2006). A brief analysis of Abraham Maslow’s original writing of self-actualizing people: a study of psychological health,
  7. (2007). A consideration of the challenges involved in supervising international masters students,
  8. (2003). A framework for understanding diversity in Indian education,
  9. (1997). A guide to conducting consensual qualitative research,
  10. (2006). A massive university or a university for the masses?’ Continuity and change in higher education in Spain and England,
  11. (2007). A model for developing international student exchanges,
  12. (2005). A qualitative investigation of the cultural adjustment experiences of Asian international college woman, Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology,
  13. (1980). A Way of Being,
  14. (2001). Abnormal Psychology, 8th edn,
  15. (1990). Abraham Maslow’s Legacy for Counseling,
  16. (2003). Acculturation and attitudes of Asian international students toward seeking psychological help,
  17. (2007). Acculturation level, perceived English fluency, perceived social support level, and depression among Taiwanese international students,
  18. (2003). Action Research for Educators,
  19. (2002). Adjustment and strain among domestic and international student sojourners,
  20. (2008). Alienation and engagement: development of an alternative theoretical framework for understanding student learning,
  21. (2001). Alternative perspectives on the student experience: alienation and engagement,
  22. (2006). An examination of acculturative stress, interpersonal social support, and use of online ethnic social groups among Chinese international students, The Howard
  23. (2007). An exploratory study of perceived discrimination and homesickness: a comparison of international students and American students,
  24. (2004). An Islamic concept of education,
  25. (2007). Analysing qualitative data in,
  26. (2001). and Sovic,
  27. (2000). Anti-racist education in ‘white’ areas: the limits and possibilities of change,
  28. (2000). Are higher standards and students’ needs compatible? Principle Leadership,
  29. (2008). Are students using the ‘wrong’ style of learning?,
  30. (2006). Are they thinking what we’re thinking? College staff and student perceptions of the impact of ethnicity and gender on completion and achievement at a college of further education,
  31. (2002). Assessing cross-cultural sensitivity awareness: a basis for curriculum change,
  32. (2002). Assessing Writing, Cambridge:
  33. (2007). Barriers to adjustment: needs of international students within a semi-Urban campus community,
  34. (2008). BBC (2006c) New faith schools ‘face shake-up’,
  35. (1992). Becoming Qualitative Researchers: An Introduction,
  36. (2004). Being vulnerable and being ethical with/in research,
  37. (2007). Believing in Britain: The Spiritual Identity of Britishness,
  38. (2003). Between state and civil society: European contexts for education,
  39. (2009). Beyond Good and Evil,
  40. (2004). Beyond the breach: transforming White identities in the classroom,
  41. (2003). Blending Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods in Theses and Dissertations,
  42. (2007). Border crossing: engaging students in diversity work and intergroup relations,
  43. (2007). Bravery honours for 7 July dogs,
  44. (2007). Bridging between orthodox western higher educational practices and an African sociocultural context,
  45. (2008). Bridging the gap in expectations between international students and academic staff,
  46. (2006). British Civilization: An Introduction, 6th edn,
  47. (2002). British universities, long focused on class issues, begin to confront race,
  48. (2004). Capitals, ethnic identity and educational qualifications,
  49. (2007). Case studies,
  50. (2004). Case study research,
  51. (2007). Challenges for international students in higher education: one student’s narrated story of invisibility and struggle,
  52. (2003). Challenging cultures? Student conceptions of ‘belonging’ and ‘isolation’ at a post-1992 university,
  53. (2008). Changes to air travel baggage arrangements,
  54. (2001). Chinese pupils and their learning preferences,
  55. (2003). Choosing Ethnic Identity,
  56. (2003). Citizenship as identity, citizenship as shared fate, and the functions of multicultural education,
  57. (2002). Class and politics,
  58. (2005). Classroom participation by international students: the case of Turkish graduate students,
  59. (2001). Code of professional practice at stake? Race, representation and professionalism
  60. (2007). Cognitive contours: recent work on cross-cultural psychology and its relevance for education,
  61. (2003). Collaborative group interactions of students from two ethnic backgrounds,
  62. (1994). Competing paradigms in qualitative research,
  63. (2003). Comprehensive educations and the liberal understanding of autonomy,
  64. (2007). Conceptions of early leaving: a comparison of the views of teaching staff and students,
  65. (2002). Confidentiality in qualitative research: reflections on secrets, power and agency,
  66. (2007). Conflict between international graduate students and faculty supervisors: toward effective conflict prevention and management strategies,
  67. (2007). Confronting Islamophobia in education,
  68. (2003). Constructing a minority group identity out of shared rejection: the case of international students,
  69. (2006). Contextual problem defining: Learning t think and act from the standpoint of equity,
  70. (2008). Coping with stress: the perspective of international students,
  71. (1994). Criteria for assessing interpretive validity in qualitative research,
  72. (2007). Cross-cultural counselling with international students,
  73. (2007). Cross-cultural differences in interpreting and conducting research,
  74. (2002). Cross-cultural partnerships between home and international students,
  75. (2005). Cross-cultural reactions to academic sexual harassment: effects of individualist vs. collectivist culture and gender of participants, Sex Roles:
  76. (2005). Crossing anxious borders: teaching across the quantitativequalitative ‘divide’,
  77. (2006). Cultural capital, ambition and the explanation of inequalities in learning outcomes: a comparative analysis,
  78. (1990). Cultural capital, student achievement, and educational reproduction: the case of Greece,
  79. (2006). Cultural differences and similarities in seeking social support as a response to academic failure: a comparison of American and Chinese college students,
  80. (2008). Cultural diversity, relocation, and the security of international students at an international university,
  81. (2003). Cultural identity and learning to teach in a diverse community: findings from a collective case study,
  82. (2004). Cultural Intelligence: A Guide to Working with People from other Cultures,
  83. (2005). Cultural values, plagiarism, and fairness: when plagiarism gets in the way of learning,
  84. (1997). Culture & Power: The Sociology of Pierre Bourdieu,
  85. (2001). Culture and control orientations,
  86. (2007). Culture, instruction, and assessment,
  87. (2001). Culture, science, and indigenous psychologies: an integrated analysis,
  88. (2001). Culture’s Consequences, 2nd edn,
  89. (1984). Culture’s Consequences, Abridged edn,
  90. (2004). Debating globalization and education after September 11,
  91. (2007). Declining foreign enrollment at higher education institutions in the United States: a research note,
  92. (2006). Defining an ‘anti’ stance: key pedagogical questions about engaging anti-racism in college classrooms,
  93. (2007). Designing embedded courses to support international students’ cultural and academic adjustment in the UK,
  94. (1999). Designing Qualitative Research, 3rd edn,
  95. (2000). Determining validity in qualitative inquiry, Theory into Practice,
  96. (2005). Development of the conformity to feminine norms inventory, Sex Roles:
  97. (2007). Differences in living and learning: Chinese International students in New Zealand,
  98. (2008). Directgov (2007a) PM outlines measures to improve security and community engagement,
  99. (2008). Directgov (2007b) PM sets out his security strategy: PM announces his strategy for security,
  100. (2006). Diversity, international students, and perceived discrimination: implications for educators and counselors,
  101. (2002). Doing and Writing Qualitative Research,
  102. (2002). East meets west: ethnic identity, acculturation, and conflict in Asian Indian families,
  103. (1970). Education cannot compensate for society,
  104. (2002). Education: Indian pupils have best
  105. (2006). Educational leadership: an Islamic perspective,
  106. (2004). Educational Research: Difference and Diversity, London: Ashgate publishing.
  107. (2004). Effective student motivation commences with resolving “dissatisfiers”,
  108. (2005). Ego, identity, ethnic identity, and the psychosocial well-being of ethnic minority and majority college students, Identity: an
  109. (2007). Entering the university: the differentiated experience of two Chinese international students in a New Zealand university,
  110. (2004). Equal opportunities of affirmative action? The induction of minority ethnic teachers,
  111. (2004). Ethical issues,
  112. (2007). Ethics of research
  113. (2003). Ethics: the failure of positivist science,
  114. (2005). Ethnic Chinese students’ communication with cultural others in a New Zealand university,
  115. (2002). Ethnic choosing’: minority ethnic students, social class and higher education choice,
  116. (1998). Ethnic communities within the university: an examination of factors influencing the personal adjustment of international students,
  117. (2005). Ethnic identity and imperative patriotism: Arab Americans before and after 9/11, College Literature,
  118. (2001). Ethnic identity, immigration, and well-being: an interactive perspective,
  119. (2004). Ethnicity and Identity: population size,
  120. (2002). Ethnicity and language,
  121. (1991). Evaluating and rethinking the case study,
  122. (1999). Evaluating the validity of educational rating data,
  123. (2001). Everyday cognition: where culture, psychology, and education come together,
  124. (2001). Exploring Teaching: An Introduction to Education, 2nd edn,
  125. (2003). Facilitating the academic success of international students,
  126. (2003). Faculty perceptions of graduate international students: the benefits and challenges,
  127. (1993). Field relations and the problem of authenticity in researching participants’ perceptions of teaching and learning in classrooms,
  128. (2004). Fieldwork traditions: ethnography and participant observation,
  129. (2004). Five misunderstandings about case-study research,
  130. (2002). Formation of cross-cultural relationships of Taiwanese international students in the United States,
  131. (1977). Foundations for a Theory of Instruction and
  132. (2000). Framing whiteness: working through the tensions in introducing whiteness to educators,
  133. (1994). Freedom to Learn, 3rd edn, Upper Saddle River,
  134. (2002). Gender differences in interest and knowledge acquisition: the United States, Taiwan and Japan, Sex Roles:
  135. (2002). Gender, sex, and the family,
  136. (2001). Geographies of Consumption,
  137. (2006). Geography in Australian schools: a view from the AGTA chair,
  138. (2002). Getting to the ‘truth’: issues in contemporary qualitative research,
  139. (2007). Global governance, educational change,
  140. (2008). Growing and developing as a university researcher,
  141. (2008). Guide (2009e) International students: which countries do international students come from?,
  142. (2007). Hitting, missing, and in between: a typology of the impact of western education on the non-western world,
  143. (2001). How to Research, 2nd edn,
  144. (2005). I know I’m a Freierit, But…”: how a key cultural frame (En)genders a discourse of inequality,
  145. (2004). Identity and gender,
  146. (1998). Ideologies and Political Theory: A Conceptual Approach
  147. (2006). Improving equity and access for low-income and minority youth into institutions of higher education,
  148. (2007). Inclusion, participation and the emergence of British Chinese websites,
  149. (2002). Inclusiveness in higher education courses: international student perspectives,
  150. (2001). Individualism and collectivism: past, present, and future,
  151. (2005). Individualism: a valid and important dimension of cultural differences between nations,
  152. (2002). Integrating culture, language and technology,
  153. (2006). Interactional issues in the teaching of ‘race’ and ethnicity
  154. (2004). Intercultural Communication: An Advanced Resource Book,
  155. (2007). Intercultural qualitative research and Ph.D. students,
  156. (2005). Intercultural teaching in higher education,
  157. (2006). Interculturalism as a paradigm for thinking about diversity,
  158. (2003). Internalization of universities: a university culture-based framework,
  159. (2006). International engineering students – avoiding plagiarism through understanding the Western academic context of scholarship,
  160. (2006). International student persistence: Integration of cultural integrity?,
  161. (2008). International student use of university health and counselling services,
  162. (2004). International students in UK universities and colleges: broadening our horizons, The Council for International Education (http://www.ukcosa.org.uk/files/pdf/BOHreport.pdf) Online accessed 7
  163. (2003). International students’ reported English fluency, social support satisfaction, and social connectedness as predictors of acculturative stress,
  164. (2002). International students’ strategies for well-being,
  165. (2003). Internationalisation, ethnic diversity and the acquisition of intercultural competencies,
  166. (2005). Internationalising students: reassessing diasporic and local student difference,
  167. (2007). Internationalization as a response to globalization: radical shifts in university environments,
  168. (2006). Interpreting Educational Research: An Introduction for Consumers of Research, 4th edn, NJ:
  169. (2006). Interpreting Qualitative Data, 3rd edn,
  170. (1994). Interviewing: the art of science,
  171. (2007). Interviews in educational research: conversations with a purpose,
  172. (2008). Into the academy: preparing and mentoring international doctoral students,
  173. (2002). Introduction to Social Psychology, 3rd edn,
  174. (2004). Introduction,
  175. (2002). Introduction: Britain in the modern world,
  176. (2003). Introduction: liberalism and the dilemma of public education in multicultural societies,
  177. (2008). Is higher education in really ‘internationalising’?,
  178. (2002). Is UK HE fit for purpose?,
  179. (1995). Islam and the Crusades, 1096-1699,
  180. (2007). Islam, national identity and public secondary education: perspectives from the Somali Diaspora
  181. (2006). Islamophobia and the “privileging” of
  182. (2007). Issues of diversity in academia: through the eyes of ‘thirdcountry’ faculty,
  183. (2003). Issues of validity in openly ideological research: between a rock and a soft place,
  184. (2005). It was nothing to do with the university, it was just the people’: the role of social support in the first-year experience of higher education,
  185. (2002). Judging the quality of case study reports,
  186. (2007). July bomb fund payments reach
  187. (1997). Key Philosophical Writings, Hertfordshire:
  188. (2006). Leadership in higher education and the second half of life,
  189. (2001). Learning diversity in higher education: a comparative study of Asian international and Australian students,
  190. (2005). Learning shock: the trauma of return to formal learning,
  191. (2004). Learning to be little women and little men: the inequitable gender equality of non-sexist children’s literature, Sex Roles:
  192. (2004). Leave no college student behind,
  193. (2008). Lecturers on teaching within the ‘supercomplexity’ of higher education,
  194. (2005). Locating Bourdieu,
  195. (2005). London blasts: at a glance,
  196. (2008). Loneliness and international students: an Australian study,
  197. (2006). Making Asian students, making student Asian: the racialisation of export education in Auckland,
  198. (2001). Making sense of a university culture: an examination of undergraduate students’ stories,
  199. (2010). Management, 10th edn,
  200. (2008). Mapping educational tourists’ experience in the UK: understanding international students,
  201. (2003). Mapping the British world,
  202. (2006). Marital status, ethnicity, academic achievement, and adjustment strains: the case of graduate international students,
  203. (2004). Meaning, identity and ‘motivation’: expanding what matters in understanding learning
  204. (2007). Meditations on First Philosophy, Sioux Falls, SD:
  205. (2007). Mental health need, awareness, and use of counseling services among international graduate students,
  206. (2005). Migration and social mobility: the life chances of Britain’s minority ethnic communities, Joseph Rowntree Foundation (http://www.jrf.org.uk/bookshop/eBooks/1861348223.pdf) Online accessed 1
  207. (2006). Migration of Eastern Europeans to Britain soars beyond estimates, The New York Times (http://nytimes.com/2006/08/23world/europe/23europe.html?_r=1&oref=slogin) Online accessed 29
  208. (1991). Modernity and Self-identity: Self and Society in Late Modern Age,
  209. (1954). Motivation and Personality,
  210. (1970). Motivation and Personality, 2nd edn,
  211. (1987). Motivation and Personality, 3rd edn, (revised) Frager
  212. (2007). Multilateral agencies in the construction of the global agenda on education,
  213. (2007). Multilingualism in Post-9/11 U.S. schools: implications for engaging empire,
  214. (2008). Muslims in Western states: the British experience and the way forward,
  215. Needs Stage 4 Esteem (Self (achievement, competency, and independence) (N=12)), Individuation is visible for five
  216. (2005). New lecturers’ constructions of learning, teaching and research
  217. (2009). New Media: A Critical Introduction, 2nd edn,
  218. (2009). New York 9/11 trial ignites row,
  219. (2009). New York Trial for 9/11 suspects, Daily Express (http://www.express.co.uk/posts/view/140332/New-York-trial-for-9-11-suspects-) Online accessed 15
  220. (2008). Office for National Statistics (2006a) Online accessed 17
  221. (2008). Office for National Statistics (2006b) Ethnicity and Identity: identity 9
  222. (2008). Office for National Statistics (2006c) Ethnicity and Identity: geographic diversity Brent the most ethnically diverse area
  223. (2006). Ogbu and the debate on educational achievement: an exploration of the links between education, migration, identity and belonging,
  224. (1961). On Becoming a Person: A Therapist’s View of Psychotherapy,
  225. (2005). On becoming a pragmatic researcher: the importance of combining quantitative and qualitative research methodologies,
  226. One Eastern international student, Aisha/Pakistani was successful with Individuation
  227. One Eastern international student, Sally/Chinese, was successful with Individuation
  228. (2008). Online accessed 15
  229. (2004). Organizational Culture and Leadership, 3rd edn,
  230. (2007). Orthodoxy, cultural compatibility, and universals in education,
  231. (2003). Overall life satisfaction and help-seeking attitudes of Turkish college students in the United States: implications for college counselors,
  232. (2003). Peak Experiences: Walking Meditations on Literature, Nature, and Need,
  233. (2005). Perceived discrimination of international visitors to universities in Germany and the UK,
  234. (2008). personal electronic communication via email.
  235. (2002). Places and peoples: nation and region,
  236. (2006). Plagiarism among local and Asian students in
  237. (2009). Population Change: UK population increases by 408,
  238. (2003). Post-9/11 laws source of campus delays, unease,
  239. (2004). Postcolonial perspectives and comparative and international research in education: a critical introduction,
  240. (2006). Postwar Era precedents and the ambivalent quest for international students at the university of Florida,
  241. (2007). Power distance in English lingua franca email communication,
  242. (2004). Project Attitude
  243. (2002). Pros and cons of faith schools,
  244. (2003). Psychology Applied to Teaching, 10th edn,
  245. (2001). Psychology as Religion: The Cult of Self-worship, 2nd edn, Grand Rapids,
  246. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis, 2nd edn,
  247. (2007). Qualitative Inquiry & Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches, 2nd edn,
  248. (2002). Qualitative Research & Evaluation Methods, 3rd edn,
  249. (1992). Qualitative Research for Education: An Introduction to Theories and Methods, 2nd edn,
  250. (2007). Qualitative Research for Education: An Introduction to Theories and Methods, 5th edn,
  251. (2003). Qualitative Research in Education: Interaction and Practice,
  252. (1999). Qualitative research methods in cross-national settings,
  253. (1992). Qualitative research: valuable or irrelevant?
  254. (2006). Qualitative Solution and Research (QSR): The Impossible Just Got Possible,
  255. (2003). Quality in qualitative research,
  256. (2004). Questions of identity,
  257. (2000). Race and Ethnicity
  258. (2003). Race mattes: the relation between race and general campus climate,
  259. (2004). Race’, ‘ethnicity’ and identity,
  260. (2004). Race’, Ethnicity and Difference: Imagining the Inclusive Society,
  261. (1999). Racial and ethnic identity and development,
  262. (2003). Racial Disadvantage and Ethnic Diversity in
  263. (2007). Racial socialization, racial identity, and black students’ adjustment to college,
  264. (1993). Real World Research: A Resource for Social Scientists a Practitioner Researcher,
  265. (2000). Recognising deductive processes in qualitative research,
  266. (2007). Relationship between adjustment and support types: young and mature-aged local and international first year university students,
  267. (2002). Religion and heritage,
  268. (2003). Religions and globalisation,
  269. (2008). Religious education for political thinking and citizenship,
  270. (2003). Research Design Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches, 2nd edn,
  271. (2002). Research Methodologies in science education: qualitative data,
  272. (2008). Research on globalization and education,
  273. (2005). Rethinking silence in the classroom: Chinese students’ experiences of sharing indigenous knowledge,
  274. (1999). Rigor in usability testing,
  275. (2003). Saddam denounces attack as 'criminal',
  276. (2007). Scholarly Islam” and “everyday Islam”: reflections on the debate over integration of the Muslim minority in India and Western Europe,
  277. (2008). Schools ‘key to defusing tension’,
  278. (2008). Self-directed learning – a learning issue for students and faculty!
  279. (2007). Settling into campus life: differences by race/ethnicity in college involvement and outcomes,
  280. (2006). Singapore’s Malay-Muslim minority: Social identification in a post- ‘9/11’ World,
  281. (2008). Social capital renewal and the academic performance of international students in Australia,
  282. (2007). Social connectedness among international students at an Australian university,
  283. (2005). Social justice in the classroom,
  284. (2007). Social unity in Britain,
  285. (2008). Spinoza as educator: from eudaimonistic ethics to an empowering and liberating pedagogy,
  286. (2006). Student perceptions of diversity on a college campus: scratching the surface to find more,
  287. (1998). Students’ attitudes toward teachers’ ethnicity, bilinguality, and gender,
  288. (2006). Successful multicultural campus: free from prejudice toward minority professors,
  289. (2007). Support group for international students: a counseling center’s experience,
  290. (2007). Supporting cultural and religious diversity in higher education: pedagogy and beyond,
  291. (2007). Surveys and sampling,
  292. (2007). Taking a critical stance,
  293. (2006). Teacher experiences of culture in the curriculum,
  294. (2003). Teachers’ beliefs about student motivation: similarities and differences across cultures,
  295. (2007). Teachers’ ethnotheories of the ‘ideal student’ in five western cultures,
  296. (2006). Teaching and learning with Asian American and Pacific islander students,
  297. (2007). Teaching and learning within and across cultures: educator requirements across the United States,
  298. (2003). Teaching intercultural communication in the university setting: an Australian perspective,
  299. (2002). Teaching techniques among Chinese international students in Christian colleges and universities,
  300. (2005). Teaching Today: An Introduction to Education, 7th edn, Upper Saddle River,
  301. (2009). Technics and Time,
  302. (1998). Technics and Time, 1: The Fault of Epimetheus,
  303. (2006). The acculturation experience: attitudes, identities, and behaviors of immigrant youth,
  304. (1969). The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious,
  305. (2008). The attainment of ethnic minority students
  306. (2007). The changing demographic picture of the UK: national statistician’s annual article on the population,
  307. (2008). The Complete University Guide (2009c) International students: percentage of international students by institution,
  308. (2004). The contemporary development of philosophy of education
  309. (2003). The crown, empire loyalism and the assimilation of nonBritish white subjects in the British world: an argument against ‘ethnic determinism’,
  310. (2006). The cultural constructs of race, gender and class: a study of how Afro-Caribbean women academics negotiate their careers,
  311. (2004). The dynamics of ethnic identity and student life,
  312. (2005). The erosion of a method: examples from grounded theory,
  313. (2005). The Ethics of Identity,
  314. (2008). The health and wellbeing of international students at an Australian university,
  315. (2004). The Higher Education Manager’s Handbook: Effective Leadership and Management in Colleges and Universities, Oxon: Routledge Falmer.
  316. (2000). The impact of “colorblind” ideologies on students of color: Intergroup relations at a predominantly white university,
  317. (2006). The impact of cross-cultural experiences on worldviews of Chinese international students, Counseling and Values,
  318. (2005). The impact of increased fees on participation in higher education in England,
  319. (2007). The Implication of Lebanese Cultural Complexities for Education,
  320. (2008). The incidence of study-related stress in international students in the initial stage of the international sojourn,
  321. (2008). The influence of personal networks and social support on study attainment of students in university education,
  322. (2008). The initial stage of the international sojourn: excitement or culture shock?,
  323. (2007). The internationalization of Higher Education: motivations and realities,
  324. (2004). The Interpersonal Communication Book, 10th edn,
  325. (2002). The interpretive process,
  326. (2005). The law and inciting terrorism,
  327. (2006). The learning processes of international students through the eyes of foreign supervisors,
  328. (1993). The number of ethnic minority students in British Higher Education: some grounds for optimism,
  329. (2006). The post-9/11 law school, The American Society
  330. (2006). The power of positive identity,
  331. (2006). The professional learning of teachers in higher education,
  332. (2008). The role of identity gaps, discrimination, and acculturation in international students’ educational satisfaction in American classrooms,
  333. (2005). The role of motivation, parental support, and peer support in the academic success of ethnic minority firstgeneration college students,
  334. (2001). The role of social networks in the adjustment of African students to British society: students’ perceptions,
  335. (2007). The social construction of race: Biracial identity and vulnerability to stereotypes, Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology,
  336. (1958). The Undiscovered Self,
  337. (2007). The use of ideal types in comparative education: a personal reflection,
  338. (2003). The validity and reliability of focus groups as a research method in adult education,
  339. (2008). Theoretical models of culture shock and adaptation
  340. (2005). Theories of Personality, 8th edn,
  341. (2007). Three remanded in 7/7 bombings, Daily Express (http://www.express.co.uk/posts/view/3871/Three-remanded-in-7-7-bombings) Online accessed 29
  342. (2000). Toward a theory of minority student participation in predominantly white colleges and universities,
  343. (2006). Towards intercultural communication: from micro to macro perspectives,
  344. Two Eastern IS were successful with Individuation in Culture Shock, Human Needs, and Western Pedagogy: Ameya/Indian (N=9) and Bambi/Chinese
  345. (2005). UCLA community college review: the overlooked minority: Asian Pacific American students at community colleges,
  346. (2008). UK university leaders at the turn of the 21st Century: changing patterns in their socio-demographic characteristics,
  347. (2005). Unconditional teaching,
  348. (2002). Understanding and evaluating qualitative research,
  349. (2003). Understanding Expertise in Teaching: Case Studies of ESL Teachers, Cambridge:
  350. (2003). Understanding reliability and validity in qualitative research,
  351. (2003). Understanding the collegiate experience for Asian international students at a Midwestern research university,
  352. (2002). University internationalisation: its meanings, rationales and implications,
  353. (2003). University teaching in ethnicity and racism studies: context, content and commitment,
  354. (2001). US strikes at Afghan targets,
  355. (2005). Using observation to improve instruction,
  356. (2003). Utilization of counseling services by international students,
  357. (2007). Welcome to America? International student perceptions of discrimination,
  358. (1995). What can you tell from an N of 1? Issues of validity and reliability in qualitative research,
  359. (2007). What do we mean by educational research?
  360. (2007). What do young British Asians really think about race and identity in the post 7/7 world?, Bobby Friction:
  361. (2005). What is educational research?
  362. (1999). White English Ethnicities’: racism, anti-racism and student perspectives,
  363. (2006). Who are these linguistically and culturally diverse students? Teachers College Records,
  364. (2005). Who speaks “broken English”? US undergraduates’ perceptions of non-native English,
  365. (2001). Women and Men: Cultural Constructs of Gender, 3rd edn, Upper Saddle River,
  366. (2007). You don’t have like an identity…you are just lost in a crowd’: forming a student identity in the first-year transition to university,

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.