Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Fire regime, vegetation dynamics and land cover change in tropical peatland, Indonesia

By Agata Hościło


This thesis seeks to understand and explain the role of fire in land cover change, vegetation and carbon dynamics in the carbon-dense, tropical peat swamp forest ecosystem of Southeast Asia. Following a methodological review, earth observation and ground data are employed to investigate fire regime, post-fire vegetation recovery, and fire-driven carbon losses in 4,500 km2 of peatland in Central Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo. Results reveal an increasing trend in deforestation (2.2% yr-1 forest loss rate, 1973-1996; 7.5% yr-1, 1997-2005) and identify fire as the principal cause. A step change in fire regime is identified, with increasing fire frequency and reduced return interval following land drainage for the Mega Rice Project (MRP). During the post-MRP period (1997-2005), ~45% of the area was subject to multiple fires; 37% burnt twice and 8% three or more times. Extensive fires in 1997 and 2002 were associated with ENSO droughts, but fires in non-ENSO years (i.e. 2004, 2005) indicate fire incidence has decoupled from ENSO. This study provides a novel approach to quantifying relative magnitude of burn severity using characteristics of the post-fire vegetation regrowth. Combined spectral and ground data are used to demonstrate that enhanced fire frequency and burn severity limit post-fire forest recovery, with fern-dominated communities replacing tree re-growth. The character of post-fire vegetation is an important factor defining burning conditions for a subsequent fire, whilst fire frequency, severity and return interval influence both rate and nature of vegetation regrowth. Methods are proposed for deriving fire-driven carbon losses. Over the period 1973-2005, losses are estimated at 79-113 Mt of carbon (53-83 Mt from peat; 26-30 Mt from vegetation), with the greatest loss occurring during the post-MRP era (65-94 Mt). This work identifies the processes linking fire regime in tropical peatland to changes in vegetation ecology and carbon stocks and assesses the implications for ecosystem rehabilitation

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 2009
OAI identifier:

Suggested articles


  1. (2008). A comparative analysis of spatial, temporal, and ecological characteristics of forest fires in seasonally dry tropical ecosystems in the Western Ghats, India. Forest Ecology and Management,
  2. (2008). A comparison of fire severity measures: An Australian example and implications for predicting major areas of soil erosion.
  3. (2005). A comparison of object-oriented and pixel-based classification methods for mapping land cover in
  4. (2007). A land-cover map for South and Southeast Asia derived from SPOT-VEGETATION data.
  5. (2005). A method to derive smoke emission rates from MODIS fire radiative energy measurements.
  6. (2003). A multi-year active fire dataset for the tropics derived from the TRMM VIRS.
  7. (2000). A new estimate of global sources and sinks of carbon from land-use change.
  8. (2008). A new, global, multi-annual (2000–2007) burnt area product at 1 km resolution.
  9. (2004). A record of Late Pleistocene and Holocene carbon accumulation and climate change from an equatorial peat bog (Kalimantan, Indonesia): implications for past, present and future carbon dynamics.
  10. (2005). A synthesis of information on rapid land-cover change for the period 1981-2000.
  11. (2005). Aboveground Forest Biomass and the Global Carbon Balance.
  12. (2008). Active fire detection and characterization with the advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER). Remote Sensing of Environment,
  13. (2001). Allometric differentiation among tropical tree seedlings in heath and peat-swamp forests.
  14. (2004). Amazon drought and its implications for forest flammability and tree growth: a basin-wide analysis.
  15. (2009). An active-fire based burned area mapping algorithm for the MODIS sensor. Remote Sensing of Environment,
  16. (2008). An object-based change detection method accounting for temporal dependences in time series with medium to coarse spatial resolution. Remote Sensing of Environment,
  17. (2009). Application of remote and in situ information to the management of wetlands in Poland.
  18. (2004). Application of spectral mixture analysis to Amazonian land-use and land-cover classification.
  19. (2008). Applying the conservativeness principle to REDD to deal with the uncertainties of the estimates.
  20. (2008). Assessing the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio’s ability to map burn severity in the boreal forest and tundra ecosystems of Alaska’s national parks.
  21. (2007). Assessment of fire severity and species diversity in the southern Appalachians using Landsat TM and ETM plus imagery. Remote Sensing of Environment,
  22. (2007). Balancing the Global Carbon Budget.
  23. (1997). Biodiversity of tropical peat swamp forest: a case study of animal diversity in the Sungai Sebangau catchment in Central Kalimantan,
  24. (2009). Biofuel Plantations on Forested Lands: Double Jeopardy for Biodiversity and Climate.
  25. (1994). Biomass burning and the production of greenhouse gases. Climate Biosphere Interaction: Biogenic Emissions and Environmental
  26. (1979). Biomass burning as a source of atmospheric gases:
  27. (1990). Biomass burning in the tropics: impact on atmospheric chemistry and biochemical cycle.
  28. (2007). Biomass content and biodiversity of tropical peat swamp forest under various land cover conditions. International Symposium and workshop on tropical peatlands,
  29. (2006). Biomass recovery of naturally regenerated vegetation after the 1998 forest fire in
  30. (1999). Biomass, carbon, and nutrient dynamics of secondary forests in a humid tropical region of Mexico.
  31. (2006). Burn severity estimation from remotely sensed data: Performance of simulation versus empirical models. Remote Sensing of Environment,
  32. (2001). Burned area in Kalimantan, Indonesia mapped with NOAA-AVHRR and Landsat TM imagery.
  33. (2007). Burned-area mapping of the Serengeti-Mara region using MODIS reflectance data.
  34. (2004). Burnt area detection at global scale using ATSR-2: The GLOBSCAR products and their qualification.
  35. (2007). Burnt area estimation for the year 2005 in Borneo using multi-resolution satellite imagery.
  36. (1989). Canopy gaps and the two major groups of forest trees.
  37. (2008). Carbon dioxide and methane fluxes in drained tropical peat before and after hydrological restoration.
  38. (2007). Carbon dioxide balance of a tropical peat swamp forest in
  39. (2002). Carbon emissions from tropical deforestation and regrowth based on satellite observations for the 1980s and 1990s.
  40. (2007). Challenges to estimating carbon emissions from tropical deforestation.
  41. (2007). Characterization of post-fire surface cover, soils, and burn severity at the Cerro Grande Fire, New Mexico, using hyperspectral and multispectral remote sensing. Remote Sensing for Environment,
  42. (2007). Classification of burn severity using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS): A case study in the jarrah-marri forest of southwest Western Australia.
  43. (2003). Classifying successional forests using Landsat spectral properties and ecological characteristics in eastern Amazonia. Remote Sensing of Environment,
  44. (2007). Clearing the way for reducing emissions from tropical deforestation.
  45. (2007). Climate Change
  46. (2008). Climate change mitigation through afforestation/reforestation: A global analysis of hydrologic impacts with four case studies.
  47. (2008). Climate regulation of fire emissions and deforestation in equatorial Asia.
  48. (2004). Combustion and thermal characteristics of peat fire in the tropical peatlands in Central Kalimantan,
  49. (2004). Comparison of AVIRIS and Landsat ETM+ detection capabilities for burn severity.
  50. (2005). Comparison of burn severity assessments using Differenced Normalized Burn Ratio and ground data.
  51. (2005). Comparison of burned area estimates derived from SPOT-VEGETATION and Landsat ETM+ data in Africa: Influence of spatial pattern and vegetation type.
  52. (2001). Comparison of change-detection techniques for monitoring tropical vegetation clearing and vegetation regrowth in a time series.
  53. (2008). Comparison of multitemporal compositing methods for burnt area detection in Southeast Asian conditions.
  54. (2005). Connection between fire and land cover change in Southeast Asia: a remote sensing case study in Riau, Sumatra.
  55. (2008). Controls on the Carbon Balance of Tropical Peatlands.
  56. (2001). Counting terrestrial sources and sinks of carbon.
  57. (2001). Currents of Change: Impacts of El Niño and La Niña on Climate and Society (Paperback). Second edition.
  58. (1990). Deforestation, Fire Susceptibility, and Potential Tree Responses to Fire in the Eastern Amazon.
  59. (2002). Degradation of forests through logging and fire in the eastern Brazilian Amazon Forest Ecology and Management,
  60. (2008). Detecting deforestation with a spectral change detection approach using multitemporal Landsat data: A case study of Kinabalu Park,
  61. (2007). Detection of burned peat swamp forest in a heterogeneous tropical landscape: A case study of the Klias Peninsula,
  62. (2004). Detection of deforestation and land conversion in Rondonia, Brazil using change detection techniques.
  63. (2008). Development of post-fire vegetation in the tropical ecosystem of Central Kalimantan,
  64. (2004). Digital change detection methods in ecosystem monitoring: a review.
  65. (1999). Diversity in specific gravity and water content of wood among Borean tropical rainforest trees.
  66. (2008). DMC Data Product Manual.
  67. (2004). Drought stress and carbon uptake in an Amazon forest measured with spaceborne imaging spectroscopy.
  68. (2005). Drought, fire and tree survival in a Borneo rain forest,
  69. (2007). Earth observations for estimating greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation in developing countries.
  70. (2004). Ecosystem process models at multiple scales for mapping tropical forest productivity.
  71. (2002). Effects of fire and selective logging on the tree species composition of lowland dipterocarp forest in East Kalimantan,
  72. (2003). Effects of fires on peat swamp and lowland dipterocarp forests in
  73. (1989). Effects of logging, drought, and fire on structure and composition of tropical forest in Sabah,
  74. (2000). Effects of soil fertility and land-use on forest succession in Amazonia. Forest Ecology and Management,
  75. (1975). El Niño - The Dynamic Response of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean to Atmospheric Forcing.
  76. (2004). Error propagation and scaling for tropical forest biomass estimates.
  77. (2007). Estimating the area of stubble burning from the number of active fires detected by satellite. Remote Sensing of Environment,
  78. (2002). Estimation of fuel moisture content from multitemporal analysis of Landsat Thematic Mapper reflectance data: applications in fire danger assessment.
  79. (2007). Evaluating remotely sensed live fuel moisture estimations for fire behavior predictions in Georgia,
  80. (2005). Evaluating vegetation recovery following large-scale forest fires in Borneo and northeastern China using multi-temporal NOAA/AVHRR images. The Japanese Forest Society and Springer-Verlag Tokyo,
  81. (2001). Evaluation of different methods to estimate understorey light conditions in tropical forests.
  82. (2007). Evaluation of linear spectral unmixing and DNBR for predicting postfire recovery in a North American ponderosa pine forest.
  83. (2005). Evaluation of remotely sensed indices for assessing burn severity in interior Alaska using Landsat TM and ETM+. Remote Sensing of Environment,
  84. (2008). Extent, significance and vulnerability of the tropical peatland carbon pool: past, present and future prospects.
  85. (2005). Factors affecting plant diversity during post-fire recovery and succession of mediterranean-climate shrublands
  86. (2001). Fern Grower's Manual. Published by Timber Press,
  87. (2004). Field validation of Burned Area Reflectance Classification (BARC) products for post fire assessment. Paper presented at Remote sensing for field users - Tenth Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Conference in Salt Lake City,
  88. (2003). Fire and smoke observed from the Earth Observing System MODIS instrument—products, validation, and operational use.
  89. (1999). Fire as a recurrent event in tropical forests of the eastern Amazon: Effects on forest structure, biomass, and species composition.
  90. (1999). Fire effects on belowground sustainability: a review and synthesis.
  91. (2005). Fire in African savanna: Testing the impact of incomplete combustion on pyrogenic emissions estimates.
  92. (2009). Fire in the vegetation and peatlands of Borneo, 1997-2007: Patterns, Drivers and Emissions. EGU General Assembly,
  93. (2009). Fire intensity, fire severity and burn severity: a brief review and suggested usage.
  94. (2003). Fire science for rainforests.
  95. (2008). Fire severity and ecosytem responses following crown fires in California shrublands.
  96. (2006). Fire severity and long-term ecosystem biomass dynamics in coniferous boreal forests of eastern Canada.
  97. (2008). Fire severity assessment by using NBR (Normalized Burn Ratio) and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) derived from LANDSAT TM/ETM images.
  98. (2003). Fire survival of lowland tropical rain forest trees in relation to stem diameter and topographic position.
  99. (2005). Fire, People and Pixels: Linking Social Science and Remote Sensing to Understand Underlying Causes and Impacts of Fires in Indonesia.
  100. (2002). Forest cover map of Insular Southeast Asia at 1:5 500 000, derived from SPOT-VEGETATION satellite images, TREES Tropical Ecosystem Environment Observations by satellites.
  101. (2001). Forest fire and biological diversity. FAO Corporate Document Repository.
  102. (2009). Forest Regeneration from Pasture in the Dry Tropics of Panama: Effects of Cattle, Exotic Grass, and Forested Riparia.
  103. (2002). Forest regeneration on abandoned clearances in central Amazonia.
  104. (2007). Forest Structure and Primary Productivity in a Bornean Heath Forest.
  105. (2001). Forest structure and tree diversity of a peat swamp forest in Central. Kalimantan, Indonesia. Jakarta symposium proceeding on peatlands for people natural resources function and sustainable
  106. (1999). Forests on fire.
  107. (2007). Functional plant ecology,
  108. (2007). Future precipitation changes and their implications for tropical peatlands.
  109. (2005). Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005; Progress towards sustainable forest management. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,
  110. (2007). Global spatial patterns and temporal trends of burned area between
  111. (2007). GlobCover: ESA service for Global land cover from MERIS. Igarss:
  112. (2004). Ground Measure of Severity, The Composite Burn Index. . In
  113. (2006). Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories.
  114. (2004). High temporal resolution fire radiative energy and biomass combustion estimates derived from MSG SEVIRI
  115. (2002). homepage:
  116. (2000). Hotspot and NDVI Differencing Synergy (HANDS) A New Technique for Burned Area Mapping over Boreal Forest. Remote Sensing of Environment,
  117. (2006). Impacts of global atmospheric change on tropical forests.
  118. (2006). Impacts of land use and fire on the loss and degradation of lowland forest
  119. (2004). Improved estimates of net carbon emissions from land cover change in the tropics for the 1990s.
  120. (2001). Increased damage from fires in logged forests during droughts caused by El Nino.
  121. (2003). Indonesian wildfires of 1997: Impact on tropospheric chemistry.
  122. (2003). Influence of fire severity on plant regeneration by means of remote sensing imagery.
  123. (2005). Integration of vegetation inventory data and Landsat TM image for vegetation classification in the western Brazilian Amazon. Forest Ecology and Management,
  124. (2006). Inter- and intra-continental transport of radioactive cesium released by boreal forest fires.
  125. (2002). Interannual growth rate variations of atmospheric
  126. (2006). Interannual variability of global biomass burning emissions from
  127. (1999). Interdependence of peat and vegetation in a tropical peat swamp forest.
  128. (2006). Interrelationships between Hydrology and Ecology in Fire Degraded Tropical Peat Swamp Forests.
  129. (2007). Land cover change 2002–2005 in Borneo and the role of fire derived from MODIS imagery.
  130. (2000). Land cover mapping of large areas from satellites: status and research priorities.
  131. (2004). Land surface temperature retrieval from MSG1-SEVIRI data.
  132. (2006). Landscape Assessment: Sampling and Analysis Methods. USDA forest Servis, General Technical Reort.
  133. (1999). Large-scale impoverishment of Amazonian forests by logging and fire.
  134. (1996). Lightning strike burns large forest tree in the Lope Reserve,
  135. (1998). Linear mixture model classification of burned forests in the Eastern Amazon.
  136. (2005). Long-term monitoring of post-fire aboveground biomass recovery in a lowland dipterocarp forest in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Nutrient Cycling in
  137. (2004). Lowland forest loss in protected areas of Indonesian Borneo.
  138. (2002). Management of tropical peatlands in Indonesia: mega reclamation project in
  139. (2003). Mapping forest degradation in the Eastern Amazon from SPOT 4 through spectral mixture models.
  140. (2003). Mapping of the tropical forest cover of insular Southeast Asia from SPOT4-Vegetation images.
  141. (2001). Mapping the biomass of Bornean tropical rain forest from remotely sensed data.
  142. (2000). Mapping the regional extent of tropical forest regeneration stages in the Brazilian Legal Amazon using NOAA AVHRR data.
  143. (2005). Mapping tropical forest structure in southeastern Madagascar using remote sensing and artificial neural networks.
  144. (2008). Master Plan for the Rehabilitation and Revitalisation of the ExMega Rice Project Area in Central Kalimantan. Euroconsult Mott MacDonald and Deltares, Delft Hydraulics in association with DHV,
  145. (2002). Measuring and remote sensing of burn severity.
  146. (1998). Measuring the strength of ENSO events - how does 1997/98 rank?
  147. (2007). MERIS Full Resolution data for mapping level-ofdamage caused by forest fires: the Valencia de Alcantara event in
  148. (2001). Methods of mapping surfaces burned in vegetation fires.
  149. (2006). Minas de Riotinto (south Spain) forest fire: Burned area assessment and fire severity mapping using Landsat 5-TM, Envisat-MERIS, and Terra-MODIS postfire images.
  150. (2007). Monitoring and estimating tropical forest carbon stocks: making REDD a reality.
  151. (1993). Monitoring ENSO in COADS with a seasonally adjusted principal component index.
  152. (2003). Monitoring secondary tropical forests using space-borne data: implications for Central America.
  153. (2008). Monitoring the effects of forest restoration treatments on post-fire vegetation recovery with MODIS multitemporal data.
  154. (2007). Mortality and growth of trees in peat-swamp and heath forests in Central Kalimantan after severe drought.
  155. (2008). National Wildfire Coordinating Group Glossary of wildland fire terminology.
  156. (1996). NDWI—A normalized difference water index for remote sensing of vegetation liquid water from space.
  157. (2008). Negative fire feedback in a transitional forest of southeastern Amazonia.
  158. (2008). New 500m spatial resolution land cover map of the western insular Southeast Asia region.
  159. (2004). Nutrient dynamics in different sub-types of peat swamp forest in
  160. (2001). Object-oriented classification for land cover mapping. eCognition Application Notes,
  161. (2003). Object-oriented classifier for detection Tropical Deforestation using
  162. (2002). Observation of flooding and rice transplanting of paddy rice fields at the site to landscape scales in China using VEGETATION sensor data
  163. (2004). Observations of carbon monoxide and aerosols from the Terra satellite: Northern Hemisphere variability.
  164. (1976). Observations on the ecology of five peat swamp forests in Sumatra and Kalimantan. Peat and podzolic soils and their potential for agriculture in Indonesia,
  165. (2008). Palm oil and the emission of carbon-based greenhouse gases.
  166. (2006). PEAT-CO2, Assessment of CO2 emissions from drained peatlands in SE Asia. Delft Hydraulics report Q3943.
  167. (2008). Peat–water interrelationships in a tropical peatland ecosystem in Southeast Asia.
  168. (2006). Plant diversity after rain-forest fires in Borneo. Blumea Supplement 18. Backhuys,
  169. (1999). Positive feedbacks in the fire dynamic of closed canopy tropical forests.
  170. (2007). Post-Fire Evaluation of the Effects of Fire on the Environment using Remotely-Sensed Data. Forest Fire, EARSeL Workshop,
  171. (2002). Post-fire tree regeneration in lowland Bolivia: implications for fire management.
  172. (2002). Post-wildfire seedbeds and tree establishment in the southern mixedwood boreal forest.
  173. (2007). Postfire soil burn severity mapping with hyperspectral image unmixing. Remote Sensing of Environment,
  174. (1988). Primary productivity of mangrove forest. Ogino K, Chihara M (eds), Biological system of mangroves. A report of east Indonesian mangrove expedition
  175. (2005). Prototyping a global algorithm for systematic fire-affected area mapping using MODIS time series data. Remote Sensing of Environment,
  176. (2007). Quantifying burn severity in a heterogeneous landscape with a relative version of the delta Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR). Remote Sensing of Environment,
  177. (2008). Quantifying the impact of cloud obscuration on remote sensing of active fires in the Brazilian Amazon. Remote Sensing of Environment,
  178. (2006). Recovery of forest structure and spectral properties after selective logging in lowland Bolivia.
  179. (2004). Recurrent fires in tropical peatlands in Central Kalimantan.
  180. (2007). Reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries: approaches to stimulate action. Decision 2/CP,13.
  181. (2008). Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and forest degradation: Global land-use implications.
  182. (2001). Reducing uncertenty in the use of allometric biomass eqations for predicting above-ground tree biomass in mixed secondary forests. Forest Ecology and Management,
  183. (2007). Regionally adaptable dNBR-based algorithm for burned area mapping from MODIS data. Remote Sensing of Environment,
  184. (1995). Regions at risk: comparisons of threatened environments edited by: The United Nations
  185. (1996). Regrowth of secondary vegetation after the 'Borneo fire' of 1982-1983.
  186. (2008). Relationships between energy release, fuel mass loss, and trace gas and aerosol emissions during laboratory biomass fires.
  187. (2004). Release and dispersion of vegetation and peat fire emissions in the atmosphere over Indonesia 1997/1998. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions,
  188. (2005). Remote classification of head and backfire types from MODIS fire radiative power and smoke plume observations.
  189. (2006). Remote sensing of fire severity in the Blue Mountains: influence of vegetation type and inferring fire intensity.
  190. (2006). Remote Sensing of Fire Severity: Assessing the Performance of the Normalized Burn Ratio.
  191. (2000). Remote sensing of fires with the TRMM VIRS.
  192. (1985). Remote sensing of forest fires: Kalimantan and North Borneo in 1982-83.
  193. (2006). Remote sensing techniques to assess active fire characteristics and post-fire effects.
  194. (2004). Remote sensing technology for mapping and monitoring land-cover and land-use change
  195. (2008). Restoration ecology of lowland tropical peatlands in Southeast Asia: current knowledge and future research directions.
  196. (2005). Restoration of Degraded Tropical Forest Landscapes.
  197. (2005). Retrieval of biomass combustion rates and totals from fire radiative power observations: Application to southern Africa using geostationary SEVIRI imagery.
  198. (2005). Retrieval of biomass combustion rates and totals from fire radiative power observations: FRP derivation and calibration relationships between biomass consumption and fire radiative energy release.
  199. (2006). Retrospective mapping of burnt areas in Central Siberia using a modification of the normalised difference water index. Remote Sensing of Environment,
  200. (2007). Rule-based classification of multi-temporal satellite imagery for habitat and agricultural land cover mapping.
  201. (2004). Runaway fires, smoke-haze pollution, and unnatural disasters in Indonesia.
  202. (2006). Satellite imagery activism: Sharpening the focus on tropical deforestation.
  203. (2000). Satellite-based mapping of Canadian boreal forest fires: evaluation and comparison of algorithms.
  204. (1998). SCAR-B fires in the tropics: properties and remote sensing from EOS-MODIS.
  205. (2005). Secondary forest detection in a neotropical dry forest landscape using Landsat 7 ETM+ and IKONOS imagery.
  206. (2005). Secondary forests as temporary carbon sinks? The economic impact of accounting methods on reforestation projects in the tropics.
  207. (2005). Secondary succession and dipterocarp recruitment in Bornean rain forest after logging. Forest Ecology and Management,
  208. (1984). Shifting cultivation for transmigration projests? How "primitive" techniques could help to solve development problems in Central Kalimantan Transmigration Areas. Ilmu Pert.
  209. (2007). Simulation approaches for burn severity estimation using remotely sensed images.
  210. (2006). Slash and bum and fires in Indonesia: A comment.
  211. (1999). Smoke-haze from the 1997 Indonesian forest fires: effects on pollution levels, local climate, atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and tree photosynthesis.
  212. (1973). Some further evidence on the amount of damage attributed to the lightning and wind-throw in Shorea albida forest in Sarawak. Commonwealth Forestry Review,
  213. (2008). Spatial and temporal alterations of tropical peatlands (Indonesia) due to widespread and repeated fires over the last 30 years.
  214. (2004). Spatial and temporal dynamics of forest canopy gaps following selective logging in the eastern Amazon.
  215. (2009). Spatiotemporal fire occurrence in Borneo over a period of 10 years.
  216. (2004). Species composition, similarity and diversity in three successional stages of a seasonally dry tropical forest. Forest Ecology and Management,
  217. (2000). SPOT VEGETATION for characterizing boreal forest fires.
  218. (2001). Synergistic interactions between habitat fragmentation and fire in evergreen tropical forests.
  219. (2005). Testing the potential of multi-spectral remote sensing for retrospectively estimating fire severity in African Savannahs. Remote Sensing of Environment,
  220. (2002). The amount of carbon released from peat and forest fires in Indonesia during
  221. (2008). The collection 5 MODIS burned area product - Global evaluation by comparison with the MODIS active fire product Remote Sensing of Environment,
  222. (2001). The ecological consequences of logging in the burned forests of East Kalimantan,
  223. (2006). The ENSO-fire dynamic in insular Southeast Asia.
  224. (1992). The Global Status of Peatlands and their Role in Carbon Cycling - A Report for Friends of the Earth by the Wetland. Ecosystems Research Group,
  225. (2005). The Physical Geography of Southeast Asia.
  226. (2008). The relationship between MODIS fire hotspot count and burned area in a degraded tropical peat swamp forest in Central Kalimantan,
  227. (1997). The Role of Fire on Greenhouse Gas and Aerosol Emissions and Land Use and Cover Change in Southeast Asia: Ecological Background and Research Needs.
  228. (2007). The role of fire on land cover changes in Borneo.
  229. (2002). The spatial manifestation of forest succession in optical imagery: The potential of multiresolution imagery.
  230. (2000). The tendency for trees to be multiple-stemmed in tropical and subtropical dry forests: Studies of Guanica forest, Puerto Rico.
  231. (1996). The tropical rain forest and ecological study,
  232. (2005). The utility of spectral indices from Landsat ETM+ for measuring the structure and composition of tropical dry forests.
  233. (2006). Time-dependent inversion estimates of global biomassburning CO emissions using Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) measurements.
  234. (2002). Total aboveground biomass in central Amazonian rainforests: a landscape-scale study.
  235. (1997). Transmigration in Indonesia: Lessons from Its Environmental and Social Impacts.
  236. (2005). Tree allometry and improved estimation of carbon stocks and balance in tropical forests.
  237. (2003). Tree biodiversity in protected and logged Bornean tropical rain forests and its measurement by satellite remote sensing.
  238. (2008). Tree diversity, composition, forest structure and aboveground biomass dynamics after single and repeated fire in a Bornean rain forest.
  239. (2002). Tree inventory Observer name:
  240. (2004). Trends in atmospheric haze induced by peat fires in Sumatra Island, Indonesia and El Nino phenomenon from
  241. (2002). Trial by fire, Postfire development of a tropical dipterocarp forest.
  242. (2004). Tropical deforestation and greenhouse-gas emissions.
  243. (2009). Tropical Fire Ecology, Climate Change, Land Use and Ecosystem Dynamics.
  244. (2006). Tropical forest monitoring and remote sensing: A new era of transparency in forest governance?
  245. (2003). Tropical forest recovery: legacies of human impact and natural disturbances.
  246. (2000). Tropical forests and atmospheric carbon dioxide.
  247. (2007). Tropical Forests and Climate Policy.
  248. (2006). Tropical forests and the changing earth system.
  249. (2009). Tropical peatland fires in Southeast Asia. In: Cochrane et al. (eds) Fire in Tropical Ecosystems.
  250. (2008). Tropical Peatlands: Carbon stores,
  251. (2007). Unsupervised classification of saturated areas using a time series of remotely sensed images.
  252. (2006). Use of a radiative transfer model to simulate the postfire spectral response to burn severity.
  253. (2005). Use of digital photography for analysis of canopy closure.
  254. (2000). Use of multitemporal ERS-2 SAR images for identification of burned scars in south-east Asian tropical rainforest.
  255. (2005). Using MODIS to evaluate heterogeneity of biomass burning in southern African savannahs: a case study in Etosha.
  256. (2002). Using remote sensing for assessment of forest wildfire carbon emissions.
  257. (2006). Utility of Landsat 7 satellite data for continued monitoring of forest cover change in protected areas in Southeast Asia.
  258. (2004). Variation in wood density determines spatial patterns in Amazonian forest biomass.
  259. (2007). Variation in wood density, wood water content, stem growth and mortality among twenty-seven tree species in a tropical rainforest on Borneo Island.
  260. (2004). Vegetation burning in the year 2000: Global burned area estimates form SPOT VEGETATION data.
  261. (2005). Vegetation responses to burning in a rain forest in Borneo.
  262. (2003). Why are estimates of the terrestrial carbon balance so different?
  263. (2005). Wildland fire hazard and risk: Problems, definitions, and context.
  264. (2005). Wise Use of Tropical Peatlands: Focus on Southeast Asia.
  265. (2008). Wood Density as a Conservation Tool: Quantification of Disturbance and Identification of Conservation-Priority Areas in Tropical Forests.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.