Location of Repository

A Sociological Analysis of Welsh Nationalism

By Robert Mears

Abstract

This study deals with the nature, development and consequences of nationalist movements in Wales. In 1973, a Royal Commission on the Constitution recommended the establishment of legislative assemblies in Cardiff and Edinburgh. The study begins with an analysis of the maintenance of a sense of national distinctiveness in Wales and Scotland, despite centuries of political incorporation into the United Kingdom. The thesis shows how the different stages of development of Welsh and Scottish societies at the time of unification with England was crucial in terms of the maintenance of national institutions. Whereas Scotland maintained a series of significant national institutions, in Wales the Welsh language became a major prop of national identity. Part of this work analyses the fate of the Welsh language since unification and its role in religion, education and the formation of political identity. The enduring link between language and nationality is examined, as is the role of the language in the development of Welsh nationalist ideology in the twentieth century.\ud The thesis also examines-the changing social, economic and occupational structure of Wales since 1945 in an attempt to explain the growth in support of Plaid Cymru in the nineteen sixties. The proposals to create legislative assemblies were the subject of a referendum in 1979, and the debate over the devolution proposals is also analysed. The thesis concludes with a review of the relevant literature, a discussion of the relative neglect by sociologists of nationalism and nationalist movements and an assessment of the future prospects for the Welsh nationalist movement

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 1986
OAI identifier: oai:lra.le.ac.uk:2381/9810

Suggested articles

Preview

Citations

  1. (1970)'Geography, social contexts and voting behaviour in Wales 1861-1951' pp 117-59 in Erik Allardt and Stein Rokkan (eds) Mass Politics
  2. (1964). (ed) Readings_in Nationalism: its meaning and development
  3. (1970). 20 Questions and Answers Cardiff.
  4. (1970). A Concise History of Scotland London,
  5. (1973). A Free Wales, A Welsh Wales, A Socialist Wales Cardiff, Plaid Cymru.
  6. (1969). A History of Scotland Harmondsworth,
  7. (1978). A History of Sociological Analysis
  8. (1975). A National Future for
  9. (1964). A North Wales Village London, Routledge & Kegan Paul.
  10. (1961). A Short History of Modern
  11. (1970). Action for
  12. (1968). An Analysis of Regional Economic and Social Statistics Durham,
  13. (1972). An Anatomy of Wales
  14. (1979). An Approach to the Political Sociology of the Welsh Nationalist Movement'
  15. (1959). An Austrian looks at Welsh Nationalism Caernarfon, Plaid Cymru.
  16. (1974). and Anne Ludbrook (1980)'Budget Allocation in the National Health Service'
  17. (1975). Attitudes to language among bilingual children and adults in Wales'
  18. (1973). Attitudes to Welsh and English in the Schools of
  19. (1973). Background to Wales Llandybie,
  20. (1984). Barry Jones in Osmond (ed)
  21. (1967). Bilingualism and Nationalism'
  22. (1951). British Pamphleteers Vol II
  23. (1951). British Pamphleteers Vol_II
  24. (1966). Carmarthen and After' Contemporary Review 209,
  25. (1971). Catalan and Basque Nationalism'
  26. (1979). Cited in Bogdanor
  27. (1984). Cited in Glyn Williams
  28. (1950). Citizenship and Social Class and Other-Essay Cambridge,
  29. (1968). Class and party divisions: Britain as a test case'
  30. (1978). Colliery Closure and Social Change Social Science Monograph,
  31. (1955). Community and Association London, Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  32. (1974). Community and Ideology London,
  33. (1966). Contemporary Nationalism in the Western World'
  34. (1984). Cooperative Democratic Participation Milton Keynes,
  35. (1978). Creative Conflict: The Politics of Welsh Devolution London, Routledge and Kegan Paul,
  36. (1976). Cultural Nationalism in Wales' Canadian Review of
  37. (1975). Culture and Politics: Plaid Cymru's Challenge to
  38. (1974). Cymdeithas Yr Iaith Cymraeg
  39. (1970). Declaration of Nationhood on behalf of the people of Scotland and
  40. (1976). Decline of Nonconformity'
  41. (1980). Dependent Development in the United Kingdom with Particular Reference to Wales' Progress in Planning Vol.
  42. (1979). Devolution
  43. (1984). Devolution and Development in Corsica Contemporary Review
  44. (1973). Devolution and Other Aspects of Government: An Attitudes Survey Research Papers 7, London, Royal Commission on the Constitution.
  45. (1978). Devolution or Revolution? ' The Times Educational Supplement 27.1.1978.
  46. (1917). Devolution: A Regional Movement'
  47. (1975). Devolution: The New Assemblies for Wales and
  48. (1973). Dimensions of Ethnic Identity: An Example from Quebec'
  49. (1969). Economic aims of Welsh Nationalists'
  50. (1981). Economic Development, Social Structure and Contemporary Nationalism in Wales'
  51. (1983). Education and Reproduction in Wales',
  52. (1971). England against the Celtic Fringe: a Study in Cultural Stereotypes'
  53. (1976). English in Wales'
  54. (1969). Ethnic Groups and Boundaries: The Social Organisation of Culture Difference
  55. (1979). Ethnic Political Mobilization: The Welsh Case'
  56. (1976). Ethnicity and social system: the religious organisation of Welshness'
  57. (1972). Ethnocentricism, nationalism and social change'
  58. (1981). Explorations and Explanations Essays in the Social Theory of Victorian Wales Llandysul, Gwasg Gomer.
  59. (1971). Federal Britain?
  60. (1973). Financial and Economic Aspects of Regionalism and Separatism London, Research Papers 10, Royal Commission on the Constitution.
  61. (1977). Goudsblom
  62. (1979). Government__Consultation: The Case of
  63. (1950). Historical Basis of Welsh Nationalism
  64. (1979). Ideology in Action Leicester, Department of Sociology, Working Papers in Historical Sociology
  65. (1975). Imagined Communities
  66. (1985). in association with
  67. (1958). Industrial Revolution in North Wales Cardiff,
  68. (1960). Industrialisation did not save the Welsh Language'
  69. (1975). Industrialism, urbanisation and the maintenance of culture areas:
  70. (1975). Internal Colonialism, The Celtic Fringe_in British National Development London, Routledge & Kegan Paul.
  71. (1961). Ioan Bowen
  72. (1968). Is a Separate Scotland Viable? '
  73. (1971). Is Wales Viable? Llandybie, Christopher Davies.
  74. (1969). Karl Marx on Colonialism and Modernisation
  75. (1974). Land of My Fathers, _2,000 years of Welsh History Swansea,
  76. (1981). Language and Social Structure in Welsh Education' in World Yearbook of Education. Education of Minorities Jacquetta Megarry, Stanley Nisbet and Eric Hoyle (eds) London, Koyan Page;
  77. (1979). Language and the Mobilization of Ethnic Identity'
  78. (1974). Language as a determinant of Welsh Identity'
  79. (1980). Language, Ethnicity and Education in Wales The Hague,
  80. (1971). Language, literacy and nationality in Wales'
  81. (1975). Languages of the British Isles Past and Present London Andre Deutsch.
  82. (1950). Life in a Welsh Countryside Cardiff,
  83. (1972). Linguistic Diversity and Political Conflict' Comparative Politics April
  84. (1984). Living in the House of Power: Welsh Nationalism and the Dilemma of Anti-System Politics' in Tiryakian, Edward and Rogowski, Ronald (eds) New Nationalisms of the Developed West: Towards an Explanation London,
  85. (1947). Local and Regional Government London,
  86. (1973). Mail 12.11.1973 16.
  87. (1974). Manifesto of the Welsh Language Society'
  88. (1980). Marx, Engels and Nationalist Movements London,
  89. (1905). Municipalization by Provinces The
  90. (1979). Nation
  91. (1979). Nation April/May
  92. (1964). Nation Building and Citizenship
  93. (1944). Nation: the history of a word'
  94. (1933). National Romanticism in Norway
  95. (1982). National Separatism Cardiff.
  96. (1945). Nationalism and After
  97. (1972). Nationalism and Internationalism London,
  98. (1953). Nationalism and Social Communication Cambridge
  99. (1982). Nationalism and the State Manchester,
  100. (1966). Nationalism as a source of aggression.
  101. (1939). Nationalism: A Report by a Study Group of Members of the institute London,
  102. (1939). Nationalism: A Report by a Study Group of Members of_the_Institute London,
  103. (1965). Nationalism: Its Meaning and History
  104. (1976). Nationalism. The Nature and Evolution of an Idea London,
  105. (1970). Nationalist Movements: a Comparative View
  106. (1965). Nationalist Movements: An Attempt at a Corporate Typology'
  107. (1970). Nationalist, Values and Change'
  108. (1944). Nationality_in History and Politics: A study of the Psychology of National Sentiment and Character London, Routledge & Kegan Paul.
  109. (1977). Nations and States: An Inquiry into the Origins and the Politics of Nationalism London,
  110. (1965). Nations, Colonies and Classes: the position of Marx and Engels'
  111. (1974). New Appeal of Nationalism'
  112. (1971). New Constitutional Structure for Wales' Political Quarterly
  113. (1970). New Horizons in Linguistics Harmondsworth,
  114. (1985). New Nationalisms of the Developed West: Towards an Explanation London,
  115. (1981). New Perspectives in Urban Change and Conflict
  116. (1979). No Assembly Campaign
  117. (1979). No Campaign Leaflet
  118. (1977). Non-violence and the Development of the Welsh Language Society 1962-1974'
  119. (1973). Nonviolent Nationalism London, Alex Wood Memorial Lecture Fellowship of Reconciliation.
  120. (1983). Notes on Some Recent Contributions to the Sociology of Sport'
  121. (1977). Occupation in Wales 1851-1971'
  122. (1912). On The Study of Celtic Literature and Other Essay s London, Everymans Library,
  123. (1975). Our changing democracy: Devolution to Scotland and Wales (Cmnd.
  124. (1956). Our Three Nations:
  125. (1978). Outsiders as Insiders: The Implications of Minority Nationalism in Scotland and Wales'
  126. (1975). p57 8. ibid p57 9. ibid p57 10. E. Dunning
  127. (1970). Participation and Democratic Theory Londonpambridge
  128. (1964). Patriotism and Nationalism New Haven,
  129. (1976). Peasants into Frenchmen. The Modernization of Rural France_1870-1914 Stanford,
  130. (1974). Personal Wealth and Finance in
  131. (1983). Plaid Cymru The Only Alternative Election Manifesto,
  132. (1964). Plan for a New Wales Cardiff, Plaid Cymru.
  133. (1977). Political Integration and Disintegration in the British Isles London, George Allen and Unwin.
  134. (1979). Political Sociology
  135. (1969). Politics and Royalty: Welsh Nationalism and the Investiture of the Prince of Wales'
  136. (1980). Poverty and Social Inequality in
  137. (1980). Poverty and Social_Inequalityin
  138. (1975). Poverty The Facts in Wales London, Child Poverty Action Group.
  139. (1974). Power for Wales October Election Manifesto,
  140. (1970). Processes of State Formation and Nation Building'
  141. (1950). Race and Culture Glencoe,
  142. (1970). Race, Conflict and Plural Society,
  143. (1982). Rebirth of a Nation Wales_1880-1980
  144. (1979). Referendum Manifesto February 7th,
  145. (1969). Referendum on the Sunday Opening of Licensed Premises in Wales as a Criterion of a Culture Region'
  146. (1977). Regional Economic Problems London, George Allen and Unwin.
  147. (1971). Regional Inequality and National Integration: the case of the British Isles'
  148. (1975). Regional Policy and the Economy of Wales Cardiff, Welsh Office.
  149. (1969). Regional Policy in Britain London, Allen and Unwin.
  150. (1942). Regional Understanding and Federalism London,
  151. (1964). Regionalism in England: Regional _Institutions: _a Guide London, Acton Society Trust.
  152. (1964). Regionalism in England: Regional Institutions: a Guide London Acton Society Trust.
  153. (1940). Regionalism London,
  154. (1975). Religion and Social Status in Rural Wales: "Buchedd" and its lessons for concepts of stratification in community studies'
  155. (1979). Religion, Language and Nationality in Wales Cardiff,
  156. Reports of the Commissioners on the State of Education in Wales (1847)
  157. (1979). Reproduced in Appendix A of Jones and Wilford
  158. (1974). Rhondda Valley Past and Future
  159. (1974). Rich Welsh or Poor British? Februrary Election Manifesto,
  160. (1973). Royal Commission on the Constitution London,
  161. (1976). Scotland and Wales - Notes on Nationalist Pre-history'
  162. (1965). Scotland since_1707: The Rise of an Industrial Society Oxford
  163. (1969). Scotlands Future: The Economics of Nationalism
  164. (1969). Scottish Nationalism London,
  165. (1971). Scottish Nationalism'
  166. (1968). See Gusfield
  167. (1965). Self Government for the Celtic Countries the case of Brittany, Wales and Scotland for the U.
  168. (1960). Self Government for Wales and a Common Market for the Nations of Europe Caernarfon, Plaid Cymru.
  169. (1973). Sharp et al
  170. (1978). Social and Cultural Change in Contemporary Wales London, Routlo%dge and Kegan Paul.
  171. (1954). Social Chang _in South West
  172. (1969). Social Cohesion, Parties and Regime Strains'
  173. (1973). Social Conflict and Social Movements New Jersey,
  174. (1975). Social Consequnces of Accomodating One's Style of Speech'
  175. (1974). Social Identity and Intergroup Behaviour'
  176. (1980). Social Research and Royal Commissions London, Allen and Unwin.
  177. (1961). Social Thought From Lore to Science New York, 3rd edition
  178. (1970). Sociological Perspectives on Internal Linguistic Tensions and their Impact on External Relations'
  179. (1974). Sociological Theory: Uses and Unities
  180. (1972). Some Reflections on Nationalism'
  181. (1963). Some Reflections on the Report of the Royal Commission on the Police' Public Law Autumn p
  182. South Wales Echo 21.2.1979.
  183. South Wales Echo 23.2.1979.
  184. (1979). State and Class: A Sociology of_International Affairs London,
  185. (1982). State Formation and Civilisation
  186. (1964). The Act of Union 1536. Its Background and Effects.
  187. (1967). The Agrarian History of England and Wales Vol 4
  188. (1936). The Background of Modern Welsh Nationalism Cardiff.
  189. (1949). The Background of Welsh History Wrexham, Hughes and Son.
  190. (1967). The Best of Parse Cork,
  191. (1957). The Breakdown of Nations Llandybie,
  192. (1977). The Breakup of Britain London,
  193. (1972). The Case for Regional Reform: Extracts from Essential Documents
  194. (1974). The Centralist Enemy Llandybie, Christopher Davies.
  195. (1978). The Civilizing Process
  196. (1978). The Constitutional and Political Consequences of Devolution London,
  197. (1979). The Deferential Worker Harmondsworth,
  198. (1975). The Desert and the Dream: A Study of the Welsh Colonialization of_Chubut_1865-1915
  199. (1974). The Desire of Nations Llandybie,
  200. (1935). The Development of Nationalism in Wales' Sociological Review XXVII.
  201. (1968). The Devolution of Power: Local Democracy, Regionalism and Nationalism London, Chatto and Windus.
  202. (1966). The Dragons Tongue Cardiff
  203. (1979). The dynamics of ethnic boundaries in modern states'
  204. (1978). The Economics of Devolution Cardiff,
  205. (1973). The Electoral Geography of Welsh and Scottish Nationalism'
  206. (1965). The Established and the Outsiders
  207. (1981). The Ethnic Revival Cambridge,
  208. (1976). The Evolution of a Myth: the Easter Rising: Dublin 1916' in Eugene Kamenka (ed) Nationalism London,
  209. (1969). The Explanation of English Regional Differences'
  210. (1950). The Historical Basis of Welsh Nationalism Cardiff, Plaid Cymru Summer School Lectures.
  211. (1968). The Historical Evolution of Modern Nationalism (reprint)
  212. (1976). The historical separateness of the Scots'
  213. (1953). The idea of nationality in Wales' Cambridge Journal VII.
  214. (1979). The Implementation of Language Policy in the Schools of Wales'
  215. (1983). The Invention of Tradition Cambridge
  216. (1976). The Lanuage of intergroup distinctiveness'
  217. (1967). The Meaning of Nationalism Oxford,
  218. (1972). The Mediterraneany World in the
  219. (1969). The Nation State and National Self Determination London,
  220. (1978). The National Movement in Scotland London, Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  221. (1985). The National Question Again Welsh Political Identity in the_1980's Llandysul,
  222. (1979). The Nationalism cf Michael D. Jones' Paper presented at
  223. (1971). The Nationalist Movement in Scotland'
  224. (1979). The Nature and Distribution of Support for Plaid Cymru'
  225. (1976). The options for constitutional unity in Great Britain' Stirling Rowntree Devolution Conference Papers
  226. (1940). The Origins of English Nationalism'
  227. (1937). The People Can Save South
  228. (1973). The Persistence of Regionalism in the British Isles'
  229. (1982). The Political Consequences of Welsh Identity'
  230. (1974). The Political Economy of Ethnic Change'
  231. (1980). The Politics of Nationalism and Devolution
  232. (1974). The Politics of Nationalist Movements A Reconsideration'
  233. (1973). The Politics of Rural Wales: A Study of Cardiganshire
  234. (1968). The Popularity of the Neighbourhood Community idea' in R. Pahl (ed) Reader in Urban Sociology
  235. (1963). The Problem of Wales and Other Essays Cardiff,
  236. (1973). The Rediscovery of Ethnicity
  237. (1970). The Rise and
  238. (1975). The Rise of the Welsh Republic Towards a Welsh Theory of Government Talybont,
  239. (1970). The Role of Language in Forging a Nation: The Case of Hebrew' The Incorporated Linguist
  240. (1984). The role of the state in the transformation of the nationalist movement of. the 1960's: Comparing Wales and Quebec.
  241. (1980). The Roots of Nationalism: Studies in
  242. (1979). The Scottish and Welsh Devolution Referendum of 1979: Constitutional Change and Popular Choice' Parliamentary Affairs 32,4,
  243. (1953). The Shrewsbury Drapers and the Welsh Wool Trade in the XVI and XVII Centuries London,
  244. (1970). The Sociological Tradition
  245. (1973). The Sociology of Community
  246. (1973). The Sociology of Social Movements London Macmillan.
  247. (1979). The Sociology of Wales: Issues and Prospects'
  248. (1966). The Structure of the Welsh Economy Cardiff,
  249. (1964). The Survival of the Welsh Language after the Union of England and Wales: the first phase 1536-42' Welsh History Review 2.1.1968.
  250. (1963). The Theory of Collective Behaviour
  251. (1964). The Third World London, Weidenfeld and Nicholson.
  252. (1942). The Trend of European Nationalism: The Language Aspect'
  253. (1970). The U. K. as a Multi-national state Occasional Paper No.
  254. (1967). The Union of England and
  255. (1975). The Valleys Call Ferndale Ron
  256. (1978). The Welsh Assembly - Towards a New Unity in Britain'
  257. (1973). The Welsh Dilemma Llandybie, Christopher Davies.
  258. (1972). The Welsh Economy: Studies in Expansion Cardiff,
  259. (1973). The Welsh Extremist Talybont,
  260. (1982). The Welsh Language in the Policy Process'
  261. (1976). The Welsh Language Today Llandysul,
  262. (1961). The Welsh Political Tradition Cardiff, Plaid Cymru.
  263. (1975). The Welsh Question Oxford,
  264. (1952). The Welsh Religious Revival 1904-1905'
  265. (1979). The Welsh Veto: The Politics of the Devolution Campaign
  266. (1977). Theories of Nationalism'. Paper presented at the British Sociological Association Annual Conference (mimeo).
  267. (1948). They Cry Wolf - Totalitarianism in Wales and the Way Out Plaid Cymru,
  268. (1977). Towards a Sociology of Wales' P,.
  269. (1971). Towards a theory of ethnic change'
  270. (1950). Towards an Economic Democracy Caernarfon, Plaid Cymru.
  271. (1973). Tudor Foreign Policy London,
  272. (1936). Types of Nationalism'
  273. (1971). Unsatisfied Nationalisms'
  274. (1972). Waiting for the Crowther Commission'
  275. (1975). Waldo Williams Cardiff,
  276. (1974). Wales a Blueprint London, CPC No 552, Conservative Political Centre.
  277. (1968). Wales A"Nation Again: the nationalist struggle for freedom Tandem.
  278. (1972). Wales and the Welsh London,
  279. (1973). Wales Can Win LLandybie,
  280. (1969). Wales Joins the World'
  281. (1957). Wales: A Physical, Historical and Regional Geography London.
  282. (1966). Wales: The Way Ahead London &
  283. (1972). Wales: Written Evidence 7, London & Cardiff, Royal Commission on the Constitution.
  284. (1978). Weber Selections in Transition Cambridge,
  285. (1954). Welsh and Scottish Nationalism: A Study
  286. (1977). Welsh Bilingualism - Fact and Friction'
  287. (1938). Welsh Nationalism and its Background' Fortnightly Vol 150,
  288. (1937). Welsh Nationalism What it Stands For London, Foyles.
  289. (1971). Welsh Nationalism: the Historical Background'
  290. (1968). Welsh Nationalism'
  291. (1968). Welsh Nationalism' Political Quarterly July-September.
  292. (1963). Welsh Society in Transition Cardiff.
  293. (1978). What is Sociology?
  294. (1984). What is Wales? the discovery of devolution'
  295. (1972). Whatever happened to Devolution? '
  296. (1985). When Was Wales?
  297. (1936). Why we burnt the bombing school Caernarfon, Plaid Cymru.
  298. (1984). Women workers in Contemporary Wales 1968-82'

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.