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Introduction and dispersal of exotic food plants into Europe during the Roman and medieval periods

By Alexandra Livarda

Abstract

This thesis examines the introduction and importation of numerous exotic food plants into north-western and western Europe during the Roman and medieval periods. It constitutes the first part of a wider, ongoing research project directed by Prof. Van der Veen on “Long-Distance Trade and Agricultural Development”. The aim is to establish the dispersal histories of these exotics and highlight the active role of food in processes of socio-economic change in past societies.\ud Relevant data were collected from all available archaeobotanical records in the area and period under study, and brought together in a uniform database format.\ud Information was gathered on the species presence, mode of preservation and accuracy of identification. Sites are classified by period (Roman/early medieval/medieval), type (urban/rural/military), status (elite/non-elite) and context (secular/ceremonial/religious). Two types of analyses are employed to identify the chronological, social and geographical dispersal of the most common (forty-two) species: a species-specific, and a multivariate technique (Correspondence Analysis).\ud Results indicate the emergence of very distinct dispersal patterns for each period and for the various species. In the Roman period numerous new food plants become available in different contexts. Many species that could be locally cultivated become incorporated into local diet, particularly near the Rhine frontier, while rarer species are limited to military, major urban and elite sites. In the following period most exotics disappear, indicating a turn towards more local dietary and agricultural regimes and highlighting the disjointed socio-economic context of the early medieval world. A shift in activities northwards is observed during the medieval period when the diversity of species increases again. Different food plants become prominent but most are associated with towns and the urban elite, marking socio-economic divisions.\ud This study advances understanding of the changing nature of the exotic status of many species, and reveals these as crucial guides to charting human and economic impacts and movements

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 2008
OAI identifier: oai:lra.le.ac.uk:2381/9622

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  331. (2004). East-Centre France France ceremonial burial
  332. (1996). Eating and Drinking in Roman Britain. Cambridge:
  333. EAU 2000/22 Great Britain secular urban town major Early medieval
  334. (2000). EAU 2000/64 Great Britain secular urban town major Early medieval
  335. (2000). EAU 2000/64 Great Britain secular urban town major medieval
  336. (1998). EAU 98/30 Great Britain secular urban town major Early medieval
  337. (2001). Eaucourt France rural elite
  338. Echangerur A4' secteur II France rural lesser Roman Matterne,
  339. Een bijdrage aan de reconstructie van milieu en agrarische activiteiten rond een nederzetting uit de 2e/3e eeuw., Scriptie I.P.P.
  340. (1986). Église paroissiale France rural lesser Roman Bakels,
  341. (2000). Ein kaiserzeitlicher Kastenbrunnen aus Klotze, Altmarkkreis Salzwedel: archaologische und palao-ethnobotanische Befunde.
  342. (1988). Ein Traubenkernfund aus dem 4./5. Jahrhundert nach Christus in Piesport.
  343. (2002). Einbeck Germany secular urban town major medieval
  344. (1998). Einbeck Germany secular urban town major medieval Paetzold,
  345. (2002). Eindhoven-Admirant Netherlands secular urban town minor medieval
  346. (1994). Eindhoven-Heuvelterrein Netherlands secular urban town minor medieval
  347. (1992). Eindhoven-Kasteel Netherlands secular rural elite medieval
  348. (1975). Elisenhof Germany secular rural village Early medieval Behre
  349. Els Mallols Spain secular rural lesser Early medieval Alonso, N. unpublished. Els conreus de l'antiguitat tardana: estudi arqueobotanic de Els Mallols,
  350. (2003). Eltville Germany religious cemetery/burial Early medieval
  351. Emile Braunplein Belgium secular urban town major medieval Meersschaert,
  352. (1999). Ename gastenkwartier Belgium religious monastery rural medieval Cooremans B.
  353. (1982). Engelsgrube 56 Germany secular urban town major medieval
  354. (2003). Entrains-sur-Nohain France ceremonial temple-shrine
  355. Entrains-sur-Nohain France ceremonial temple-shrine Roman Wiethold,
  356. (1993). Environmental evidence. In
  357. (1982). Environmental evidence. Late Roman villa of Vilauba.
  358. Enzberg Germany rural lesser Roman Manfred Rosch (database).
  359. (1986). Épave de la Tradeliere France shipwreck
  360. (2004). Epenottes France rural lesser
  361. (2004). Epenottes France secular rural lesser medieval
  362. (1995). Ergolding-Fischergasse Germany secular rural village Early medieval
  363. (2005). Ermitage-Bas France secular rural lesser Early medieval Ruas,
  364. (2005). Ermitage-Bas France secular rural lesser medieval Ruas,
  365. Erps-Kwerps Belgium rural elite Roman Bakels and Kuijper 1992. Archaeobotanical Analysis.
  366. (1979). Eschelbronn Germany secular rural elite medieval Korber-Grohne
  367. (1997). Eschenz Switzerland town minor Roman Feigenwinter, F.
  368. (1993). Etude carpologique d'offrandes alimentaires vegetales dans le sepultures gallo-romaines: reflexions preliminaires. Monde des Mortes, Monde des Vivants en Gaule Rurale. A. Ferdiere, Conseil Regional du Centre:
  369. Evangelische Kirche Germany secular rural village medieval Manfred Rosch (database).
  370. (2004). Excavacio de dos pous d’epoca romana a Guissona. L’explotacio dels recursos vegetals a la ciutat d’Iesso als segles I aC-IIdC, Iesso I. Miscel·lania arqueologica,
  371. (2004). Exotic food remains from Roman Bath.
  372. (2005). Eyguières France secular rural elite Early medieval Ruas,
  373. (2002). Fanum Freudenberg France ceremonial temple-shrine
  374. (2001). Farm (South of Ashford) Great Britain ceremonial temple-shrine Roman Pelling, R. unpublished b, for the Temple/Shrine and Pinus pinea - also
  375. (2001). Farm (South of Ashford) Great Britain town minor Roman Pelling, R. unpublished b, for the Temple/Shrine and Pinus pinea - also
  376. (1986). Farm 72-6 Great Britain rural elite
  377. (1996). Farm 86-94, nr Witney Great Britain secular rural village Early medieval
  378. (2000). Farm Great Britain rural elite
  379. (2004). Faulquemont France ceremonial burial Roman Marinval, Ph.
  380. (2004). Fenotte France ceremonial temple-shrine
  381. (2001). Ferme de l' Epinette France rural elite
  382. (1984). First and second century carbonised cereal grain from Roman London. In
  383. (1996). Fishergate (46-54) 85-6 (Priory) Great Britain religious cemetery/burial medieval
  384. (1996). Fishergate (46-54) 85-6 (Priory) Great Britain religious monastery urban medieval
  385. (1996). Fishergate (46-54) 85-6 Great Britain various trading centre Early medieval Allison,
  386. (1954). Fjand Denmark rural lesser Roman Helb?k
  387. (2002). Food remains.
  388. (1998). Former Allied Brewery, 148-180, St John Str., London ECI Great Britain secular urban town major medieval
  389. (2001). Fossette France rural lesser
  390. (1993). France ceremonial burial Roman Marinval, Ph.
  391. France ceremonial temple-shrine Roman Wiethold,
  392. (1993). France rural lesser
  393. (2001). France rural lesser Roman Bouby, L.
  394. France rural lesser Roman Le Calve 2004. Carpologie sur le trace du TGV Nord: petite histoire d' etsblissements ruraux antiques de la Gaule septentrionale. Memoire de DEA 'Environnement et archeologie'.
  395. (1985). France rural nucleated Roman Marinval, Ph.
  396. (1989). France rural nucleated Roman Ruas,
  397. (1997). France secular rural lesser medieval
  398. (1999). France secular rural village Early medieval Bakels,
  399. (2005). France secular rural village Early medieval Ruas,
  400. (1999). France secular rural village medieval Bakels,
  401. (1992). France secular rural village medieval Ruas,
  402. (1986). Friars' Monastery, Odense Denmark religious monastery urban medieval Jensen
  403. (1987). Friesenplatz Germany secular urban town major medieval Knorzer,
  404. (1971). Friesheim Germany rural elite Roman Knorzer,
  405. (1996). Fronhofbuck Germany rural nucleated Roman Stika
  406. (1974). Fyrkat Denmark secular rural elite Early medieval Helb?k
  407. (1995). Gaimersheim Germany secular rural village medieval
  408. (1996). Gas House Lane 88-9 Great Britain secular urban town minor medieval
  409. (1996). Gas House Lane 88-9 Great Britain town minor
  410. (2000). Geldrop Netherlands secular rural village Early medieval Beurden, L. van 2002. Botanisch onderzoek in het Maas-Demer-Schelde gebied.
  411. (1998). Gemert-Textielfabriek Netherlands secular rural elite medieval
  412. (1992). Genlis France secular rural village Early medieval Ruas,
  413. (1979). Germany military extramural
  414. (1998). Germany military extramural Roman Rosch 1989b (Murrhardt).
  415. Germany military extramural Roman Wiethold, J. in press.
  416. (1981). Germany religious monastery urban medieval Behre,
  417. (1998). Germany rural nucleated Roman Piening, U. 1982a/b (Bad Mergentheim,
  418. (1998). Germany rural nucleated Roman Rosch 1995b (Lahr).
  419. Germany secular rural elite Early
  420. Germany secular rural elite medieval Knorzer, K-H. 1999. Die Pfalanzenfunde.
  421. (1992). Germany secular urban castle medieval
  422. (1981). Germany secular urban town major medieval Behre,
  423. (1988). Germany secular urban town major medieval Knorzer,
  424. (2003). Germany secular urban town minor medieval
  425. (1993). Germany secular urban town minor medieval Fischer
  426. (1988). Germany secular urban town minor medieval Knorzer,
  427. (1998). Germany secular urban town minor medieval Labor f. Archaobotanik LDA Hemmenhofen, unpublished data.
  428. (1998). Germany secular urban town minor medieval Rosch 1991b (Tubingen).
  429. (1998). Germany secular urban town minor medieval Rosch 1999a,b.
  430. (1981). Germany town major Roman Knorzer,
  431. (1996). Gernsbachstrasse Germany military extramural
  432. Gerolzhofen AK97 Germany rural nucleated Roman Kreuz unpublished.
  433. (1987). Geschichte der Synanthropen Vegetation von Koln. Kolner Jahrbuch fur Vor- und Fruhgeschichte 20, Seite: 271-388. [Includes results from previous publications on Koln].
  434. (1933). Ginnerup Denmark rural lesser Roman Jessen
  435. (1985). Gittrup Germany secular rural lesser Early medieval
  436. (1989). Gliechow Germany secular rural elite medieval
  437. Glöcklehof Germany secular rural lesser medieval Manfred Rosch (database).
  438. Godmanchester Great Britain rural elite Roman Murphy,
  439. Goldgasse Switzerland town minor Roman Jacomet unpublished Romanization project [525].
  440. Gosberton Great Britain secular rural village Early medieval Murphy, P.
  441. (1996). Gottlieb-Daimler Schule Germany rural nucleated
  442. (2000). Gouda-Oostpolder II Netherlands secular rural non elite medieval
  443. Goussancourt France rural lesser Roman Matterne,
  444. (2001). Governmer's House Great Britain secular urban town major medieval
  445. (2001). Governmer's House Great Britain town major
  446. (1982). Grabung Burgkloster Germany religious monastery urban medieval
  447. (1906). Great Britain military extramural
  448. (2002). Great Britain military intramural
  449. (1994). Great Britain rural elite
  450. (1999). Great Britain rural lesser Roman Hinton, P.
  451. (1995). Great Britain rural nucleated
  452. Great Britain rural nucleated Roman Straker, V, unpublished 9a. Claydon Pike, Gloucestershire: Carbonised cereals from the late Iron Age to Roman Periods.
  453. (1989). Great Britain secular urban town major medieval
  454. (1990). Great Britain secular urban town major medieval Davies, A.
  455. Great Britain secular urban town major medieval G Campbell db: the references of the sites are not mentioned and it is not clear which site corresonds to which reference from her bibliographical list.
  456. (1996). Great Britain secular urban town major medieval Moffett,
  457. (1988). Great Britain secular urban town major medieval Murphy P.
  458. (2004). Great Britain secular urban town major medieval Roberts,
  459. (1997). Great Britain secular urban town minor medieval Fairweather, A.
  460. (1988). Great Britain secular urban town minor medieval G Campbell db: the references of the sites are not mentioned and it is not clear which site corresonds to which reference from her bibliographical list.
  461. (1989). Great Britain town major Roman Greig,
  462. (1985). Great Britain various industrial site Roman Van
  463. (1976). Great Yarmouth (TRADE) Great Britain secular urban town minor medieval
  464. (1999). Grèves' France rural lesser Roman Bakels,
  465. (1991). Greyfriars Rd 88 Great Britain secular urban town major Early medieval
  466. (1994). Grimston (site 24054) Great Britain various industrial site medieval
  467. (2005). Groenstraat Belgium secular rural lesser medieval In't
  468. (2000). Groningen-Gelkingestraat Netherlands secular urban town major medieval
  469. (2000). Groningen-Hardewikerstraat Netherlands secular urban town major medieval
  470. (2000). Groningen-Martinikerkhof Netherlands secular urban town major medieval
  471. (2000). Groningen-Oude Ebbingestraat Netherlands secular urban town major medieval
  472. (2000). Groningen-Pelsterstraat Netherlands secular urban town major medieval
  473. (2000). Groningen-Westerbinnensingel Netherlands secular urban town major medieval
  474. (1992). Groningen-Wolters/Noordhoff-Complex Netherlands secular urban town major medieval
  475. (1998). Großkuchen Germany secular rural village Early medieval Labor f. Archaobotanik LDA Hemmenhofen, unpublished data.
  476. (1995). Großsorheim Germany rural elite
  477. Grötzingen Germany secular rural village medieval Manfred Rosch (database).
  478. (1993). Grüner Hofes Germany secular urban town major medieval
  479. Günzburg Germany town minor Roman Kuster unpublished Romanization project [209-10].
  480. (1998). Haag-Amicitia Netherlands secular urban town minor medieval Vermeeren,
  481. (1998). Haarlem-Korte Begijnestraat 10 Netherlands secular urban town major medieval
  482. (1985). Haarlem-Lange Veerstraat 27-29 Netherlands secular urban town major medieval Haaster,
  483. (2002). Haarlem-Spaarne Netherlands secular urban town major medieval Brinkkemper, O.
  484. (1991). Habay-la-Vieille Belgium rural elite
  485. (1989). Hackney, London Great Britain shipwreck Early medieval
  486. (1987). Hagedorn Switzerland military extramural
  487. (1969). Haithabu Germany various trading centre Early medieval Behre
  488. (1987). Halles de Troyes France secular urban town major medieval
  489. (1984). Hambach 382 Germany rural elite Roman Knorzer,
  490. (1997). Hambach 500 Germany rural elite Roman Knorzer,
  491. (1997). Hambach 500 Germany secular rural lesser medieval Knorzer,
  492. Hamwic Great Britain various trading centre Early
  493. (1997). Hamwic Great Britain various trading centre Early medieval Biddle, B.
  494. (1998). Hans-Kraut-Gasse Germany secular urban town minor medieval Rosch 1999a,b.
  495. Harlé France rural lesser Roman Hingh, A. de 1996. Bottle gourd seeds at Gallo-Roman 'Le Bois Harle'
  496. (2002). Harmonie Germany secular urban town minor medieval Sillmann
  497. (1991). Harste 21 Germany secular rural village Early medieval
  498. (1987). Hartlepool Great Britain secular urban town minor medieval Huntley,
  499. (1995). Haßfurter Germany secular urban town minor medieval
  500. (1995). Haßstraße/Klosterkirchhof Germany secular urban town minor medieval Wiethold,
  501. (1986). Hatzum-Burg Germany secular rural village Early medieval Behre,
  502. (1986). Hatzum-Burg Germany secular rural village medieval Behre,
  503. (1986). Hatzum-Langwurt Germany secular rural village Early medieval Behre,
  504. Hauptstraße 41 Germany secular urban town major medieval Manfred Rosch (database).
  505. Haus zur Treu Switzerland secular urban town minor medieval Brombacher und Klee in preparation (database).
  506. Haute Eloge Belgium rural elite Roman Laurent, Ch. a paraitre. Resultats des etudes micro-archeologiques et carpologiques. In
  507. (1987). Heilig-Geist-Hospital Germany secular urban town minor medieval
  508. (2002). Heilingen-Geist-Hospital Germany secular urban town major medieval Averdieck,
  509. (2003). Heldenbergen Germany military extramural
  510. (2000). Herdstedøster Denmark secular rural lesser medieval
  511. (1965). Herlufsholm Denmark religious monastery rural medieval Odum
  512. (1992). Herrenberg Raistingen Germany secular rural village medieval
  513. (2000). Herstedøster Denmark secular rural lesser medieval Karg
  514. (2000). Herstedøster Menighedsrådshus Denmark secular rural lesser medieval
  515. (2001). Heumarkt Germany secular urban town major Early medieval Knorzer,
  516. (2001). Heumarkt Germany secular urban town major medieval Knorzer,
  517. (2001). Heumarkt Germany town major Roman Knorzer,
  518. (1994). Heveskesklooster Netherlands rural lesser Roman Cappers,
  519. (1979). Hibaldstow Great Britain town minor Roman Greig
  520. High St, Perth Great Britain secular urban town minor medieval
  521. (1987). High St/Blackfriargate (Hull) 73-6, Kingston-upon-Hull Great Britain secular urban town major medieval
  522. (1997). Higos, ciruelas y nueces: Aportacion de la arqueobotanica al estudio del mundo romano.
  523. (2001). Hinter dem Schwalbeneck 5-9, Ausgburg Germany town major Roman
  524. (1994). Hinter der Post Germany secular urban town minor medieval Fischer/Rosch
  525. Hinxton Hall Great Britain secular rural village medieval
  526. (1996). Hochmausen Germany military intramural Roman Stika
  527. (1987). Hochsammler Domhof Germany town major Roman Knorzer,
  528. Hofherrenweiler Germany rural nucleated Roman Manfred Rosch (database).
  529. (1988). Hofstatt Germany secular urban town minor Early medieval
  530. Hollenæs Denmark secular rural village medieval Alsleben,
  531. (1958). Hoogelande Netherlands secular rural lesser medieval Trimpe Burger,
  532. (2002). Hoogeloon Netherlands rural elite
  533. (1998). Hospital 76-8, Bristol Great Britain secular urban town major medieval
  534. (1984). Hospital 77, Thetford Great Britain secular urban town minor Early medieval Murphy P.
  535. (2004). Hospital of castrum de Novaesium Germany military intramural Roman Marinval, Ph.
  536. (1997). Hospital of St Mary Spital Great Britain religious monastery urban medieval Davies, A.
  537. (1990). Hôtel de Ville France secular urban town minor medieval Marinval, Ph.
  538. (1990). Hôtel-Dieu France secular urban town minor medieval Marinval, Ph.
  539. Houdin, Blois France secular urban town major Early medieval Pradat,
  540. (2000). House, Southwark Great Britain secular urban town major medieval Gray-Rees,
  541. (2005). Houtem Belgium rural nucleated Roman In't
  542. (1986). Houten-Doornkade Netherlands rural lesser Roman Buurman,
  543. (2001). Houten-Hoge Dijk Netherlands secular rural lesser medieval
  544. Houten-Tiellandtweg I Netherlands secular rural lesser Early medieval
  545. (1996). Houten-Tiellandtweg IV Netherlands rural lesser
  546. (1996). Houten-Tiellandtweg IV Netherlands secular rural lesser Early medieval
  547. (1986). Höxter Germany secular urban town minor medieval Willerding, U.
  548. Højbro Plads Denmark secular urban town major medieval
  549. (2000). Huis Malburg' Netherlands secular rural lesser medieval
  550. (1987). Hüls Germany rural lesser Roman Knorzer,
  551. Hummelbrunnen Germany rural lesser Roman Manfred Rosch (database).
  552. (1991). Hunderstraße 9-17 Germany secular urban town major medieval Alsleben,
  553. (2005). Hunderwasserhaus frühere Nikolaikirche Germany secular urban town major medieval Hellmund,
  554. (1995). Huttenstadel Germany secular urban town minor medieval
  555. (1986). Identification of olive stone.
  556. (2002). IJsselstein-Hofstraat Netherlands secular urban town minor medieval Haaster,
  557. (1995). Ilôt Vignier France secular urban town major medieval Lundstrom-Baudais,
  558. (2004). Impasse de la Duchère France ceremonial burial Roman Marinval,
  559. (2001). Impasse du Papier Belgium secular urban town major medieval Laurent Ch.,
  560. (1996). In den Brühl-morgen” Germany rural nucleated
  561. (2003). Informe arqueobotanico: macrorrestos vegetales del yacimiento romano calle Tadeo Murgia de
  562. Ingré France secular rural lesser medieval Pradat,
  563. (1998). Insula 26 Germany town major
  564. (1981). Insula 7 Germany town major Roman Knorzer,
  565. (1987). Ipswich Great Britain secular urban town major Early medieval
  566. (1987). Ipswich Great Britain secular urban town major medieval
  567. (1971). Irrel Germany rural lesser
  568. (2004). Javols France ceremonial burial Roman Marinval, Ph.
  569. (2001). Jesuitengasse 14 Germany town major Roman
  570. (2003). Johanneser Kurhaus Germany various industrial site medieval Andrae,
  571. John’s Triangle Great Britain secular urban town major medieval Cessford, C. forthcoming. St John’s Triangle, Cambridge. An Archaeological Excavation. Cambridge Archaeological Unit Report.
  572. Josefshaus Germany secular rural village medieval Manfred Rosch (database).
  573. Josephshof” Germany rural lesser Roman Konig, M in preparation Graach.
  574. (1999). Jurières Basses France secular rural lesser Early medieval
  575. Kaiserstr Germany secular urban town minor medieval Manfred Rosch (database).
  576. (1990). Kampen-"Achter Blokker" Netherlands secular urban town major medieval Vermeeren,
  577. (1990). Kampen-"de Kokpanden" Netherlands secular urban town major medieval Vermeeren,
  578. (1995). Kampen-Agnietenklooster Netherlands religious monastery urban medieval
  579. (2001). Kampen-Voorstraat 18-20 Netherlands secular urban town major medieval
  580. Kapellenösch Germany town major Roman Manfred Rosch (database).
  581. (1992). Kappelhofstraße Germany rural nucleated
  582. (1998). Karg's database for detailed samples:
  583. (1988). Kehlweg Germany rural nucleated
  584. (1985). Kelheim Germany secular urban town minor medieval Gregor,
  585. (1995). Kellmünz Germany military intramural
  586. Kempten Germany town major Roman Kuster
  587. (2005). Kerkom Belgium rural elite Roman In't
  588. (2005). Kerkom Belgium secular rural lesser medieval In't
  589. Kesteren-De Woerd Netherlands rural lesser
  590. (2003). King Edward's Buildings Great Britain secular urban town major medieval Davies,
  591. (2003). King Edward's Buildings Great Britain town major Roman Davies,
  592. (1998). Kirchheim/Teck Germany secular urban town minor medieval Rosch 1999a,b.
  593. (1984). Klarissenstraße Germany secular urban town major medieval Knorzer, K-H.
  594. Koblenz Germany ceremonial burial Roman Kroll,
  595. Kogge Denmark shipwreck medieval Karg,
  596. (1985). Kohlmarkt Germany secular urban town major Early medieval Willerding, U.
  597. (2002). Kolding Denmark secular urban town minor medieval Jensen 1979, 1988, 1991a
  598. (2002). Kongens Nytorv Denmark secular urban town major medieval Moltsen,
  599. (1935). Königsberg Germany ceremonial burial Roman Neuweiler,
  600. (1998). Königshofweg Germany secular urban town minor medieval Labor f. Archaobotanik LDA Hemmenhofen, unpublished data.
  601. (1990). Königshoven Germany secular urban town minor medieval Knorzer,
  602. (2002). Köningstrasse 59 Germany secular urban town major medieval Averdieck,
  603. (2001). Kornhausgasse 4 Germany military extramural Roman
  604. Kragehavegard (02.02.07 Hoje Taastrup). In
  605. (2001). Kragehavegård Denmark secular rural village Early medieval
  606. (1961). Krankenhaus Germany rural nucleated Roman Fietz
  607. (1991). Krefeld-Linn Germany secular urban town minor medieval
  608. (1990). Krefeld-Oppum Germany secular rural village Early medieval Knorzer,
  609. (1990). Krefeld-Oppum Germany secular rural village medieval Knorzer,
  610. (1987). Kreissparkasse Germany secular urban town major medieval
  611. (1998). Küferstraße Germany secular urban town minor medieval Labor f. Archaobotanik LDA Hemmenhofen, unpublished data.
  612. (2003). Kuhstraße 23 Germany secular urban town major medieval
  613. Kuinre-IJsselham Netherlands secular rural elite medieval
  614. (1979). Kultur- und Nutzpflanzen aus einer romischen Grube in Butzbach und ihr Zusammenhang mit Pflanzenfunden aus anderen romischen Fundstatten. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte unserer Kulturpflanzen. Saalburg Jahrbuch,
  615. (1974). Kultur- und Wildpflanzenreste aus einem romischen Brunnen von Rottweil-Altstadt.
  616. Kurhaus Germany various industrial site medieval Willerding, U. On the utilisation of the plant resources of the upper Harz Mountains by the mining and smelting industries during medieval times.
  617. l f ill
  618. (1998). l' Écluse, Bibracte (OPPIDUM) France rural nucleated Roman Wiethold,
  619. (2001). L'Orme France rural lesser
  620. (1999). L'Union France secular rural lesser medieval Ruas,
  621. La Faye Switzerland ceremonial burial Roman Ernst, Klee, Brombacher database.
  622. (2001). La Ferme d 'Ithe, Jouars-Pontchartrain France military extramural
  623. (2005). La Gravette France secular rural elite medieval
  624. (2001). La Haute Borne France military extramural
  625. (2002). La Peupleraie 2", Alsace France secular rural lesser Early medieval
  626. (1998). La Pran/Tivila Switzerland secular rural village Early medieval Brombacher and Kroll: Brombacher, Ch.
  627. (2000). Landschappelijk en archeobotanisch onderzoek van de Romeinse site te Sint-Gillis-Waas – Kluizenmolen. De Aardrijkskunde 1-2: 95
  628. (1986). lane, Bedford Great Britain secular urban town minor medieval
  629. Langenau Germany secular rural village Early medieval Manfred Rosch (database).
  630. (2004). Languedoc France ceremonial burial
  631. Larry' France rural lesser Roman Matterne,
  632. (1992). Lausen-Bettenach (G114) Switzerland secular rural village Early medieval Jacomet, S. (unter Mitarbeit von Pascal Favre)
  633. (1969). Laverstock, nr Salisbury Great Britain secular rural lesser Early medieval Metcalfe C.
  634. (1997). Le Castlar France secular urban town minor medieval
  635. Le Champs des oiseaux, Pezou France rural lesser Roman Pradat,
  636. Le Champs des oiseaux, Pezou France secular rural lesser Early medieval Pradat,
  637. Le Clos de Diane’ France military extramural Roman Matterne,
  638. (1996). Le haut Moyen Age a Develier, La Pran et a Courtetelle, Tivila (JU, Suisse). Etude
  639. Le Motel France ceremonial burial Roman Le Calve 2004. Carpologie sur le trace du TGV Nord: petite histoire d' etsblissements ruraux antiques de la Gaule septentrionale. Memoire de DEA 'Environnement et archeologie'.
  640. (2003). Le Moulin Mayeux' France rural nucleated
  641. Le Poteau du Mensil’ France rural elite Roman Matterne,
  642. (2002). Lebehn Germany secular rural lesser Early medieval
  643. (1992). Leerhalde Germany religious cemetery/burial Early medieval
  644. Leeuwarden-Bullepolder Netherlands rural non elite Roman Roller, G.J. de 2002. Archeobotanisch onderzoek.
  645. (1987). Leeuwarden-Gouverneursplein Netherlands secular urban town major Early medieval
  646. (1987). Leeuwarden-Gouverneursplein Netherlands secular urban town major medieval
  647. Leeuwarden-Hempens Teerns Netherlands rural non elite
  648. (1987). Leeuwarden-Speelmanstraat Netherlands secular urban town major medieval
  649. (1986). Leiden-Agnietenklooster Netherlands religious monastery urban medieval Kuijper, W.J.
  650. Leiden-Roomburg Netherlands military extramural
  651. Les grandes Chapelles France rural lesser Roman Pradat,
  652. (1993). Les Landes France ceremonial burial Roman Marinval, Ph.
  653. (1993). Les Martres-de-Veyre France ceremonial burial Roman Marinval,
  654. (2003). Lestagnac France rural elite
  655. Lieser Germany rural lesser Roman Konig,
  656. Lieshout-Beekseweg Netherlands rural non elite Roman Haaster, H. van 2003. Milieuomstandigheden en agrarische activiteit op en rond drie nederzettingen uit de IJzertijd, Romeinse Tijd en Volle Middeleeuwen aan de Beekseweg in Lieshout (N.B).
  657. (1996). Lieshout-Nieuwenhof Netherlands secular rural non elite medieval
  658. (2002). Lillelunds Have Denmark secular urban town minor medieval
  659. (2004). Limagne, Auvergne, Massif Central France ceremonial burial
  660. Link Great Britain rural lesser Roman G Campbell db: the references of the sites are not mentioned and it is not clear which site corresonds to which reference from her bibliographical list.
  661. (2007). Littéraires, 764. Série 'Environnement, sociétés et archéologie', 5. Besançon: Presses Universitaires Franc-Comtoises:
  662. (2005). Lleida city Spain secular urban town minor Early medieval
  663. (1977). Ln 68-9 Kings Lynn 1219 KLY Great Britain secular urban town minor medieval Franks J.
  664. (1977). Ln 74 Great Britain secular urban town major medieval Williams, D.
  665. (1998). Löchleacker Germany rural nucleated Roman Labor f. Archaobotanik LDA Hemmenhofen, unpublished data.
  666. (1992). Löddigsee Germany secular rural elite medieval
  667. London (Roman waterfront) Great Britain town minor Roman G Campbell db: the references of the sites are not mentioned and it is not clear which site corresonds to which reference from her bibliographical list.
  668. London Great Britain ceremonial burial Roman David/de Moulins unpublished Romanization project [327].
  669. (2001). London Great Britain secular urban town major medieval
  670. (1993). London Great Britain town major Roman Davies,
  671. London Great Britain town major Roman Davis unpublished Romanization project [325/6].
  672. London Great Britain town major Roman G Campbell db: the references of the sites are not mentioned and it is not clear which site corresonds to which reference from her bibliographical list.
  673. (2002). Longueil-Sainte-Marie France rural nucleated
  674. Longues Fauchées’ France rural lesser Roman Matterne,
  675. (1996). Lontelstrasse Germany rural elite
  676. (1996). Los recursos vegetales en el mundo romano: estudio de los macrorrestos botanicos del yacimiento Calle Santiago de Irun (Guipuzcoa). Archivo Espanol de Arqueologia 69:
  677. (1980). Lower Thames St. Great Britain town major
  678. Lübeck Germany secular urban town major medieval Haaster, H. van 1994. Plant resources and environment in late medieval Lubeck. In
  679. (2000). Luckau Germany secular urban town minor medieval
  680. (1990). Lunel-Viel France secular rural village medieval Ruas, M-P.,
  681. (1999). Luxemburg Luxemburg ceremonial burial
  682. (1994). Luxemburg rural nucleated
  683. (2000). Maastricht in the first millennium AD. The archaeobotanical evidence.
  684. (1996). Maastricht-Derlon Netherlands military intramural
  685. (2000). Maastricht-Houtmaas II Netherlands military extramural
  686. (1984). Maastricht-Houtmaas Netherlands military extramural Roman Kuijper,
  687. Magdeburg Germany secular urban town major Early medieval Neef database [6]
  688. Magdeburg Germany secular urban town major medieval Neef database [6]
  689. (1996). Maiden Castle Road Great Britain rural nucleated
  690. (1995). Mainz-Weisenau Germany ceremonial burial
  691. (1995). Mansion House 90, Newcastle upon Tyne Great Britain secular urban town major medieval
  692. (1999). María de Melque Spain secular urban town major Early medieval Arnanz,
  693. (1999). María de Melque Spain secular urban town major medieval Arnanz,
  694. Marines France secular rural village Early medieval Pradat,
  695. (1980). Marken-Moeniswerf Netherlands secular rural lesser medieval
  696. (1995). Markt Germany secular urban town minor medieval
  697. (1998). Markthallenviertel Germany secular urban town minor medieval
  698. Marseille France religious cemetery/burial Early medieval
  699. Martberg Germany ceremonial temple-shrine Roman Kroll, H unpblished Romanization [456].
  700. (1987). Martinsviertel 1973/4 Germany town major Roman Knorzer,
  701. (1987). Martinsviertel Germany secular urban town major Early medieval Knorzer,
  702. (1987). Martinsviertel Germany secular urban town major medieval Knorzer,
  703. (1991). Meales Farm 85-6 Great Britain secular rural elite medieval Carruthers, W.
  704. Mecklenburg Germany secular rural elite Early
  705. (1985). Medemblik-Muntstraat/Korensteeg (M82) Netherlands secular rural village Early medieval Cremer,
  706. (1985). Medemblik-Muntstraat/Korensteeg (M82) Netherlands secular rural village medieval Cremer,
  707. (1985). Medemblik-Oude Haven/Ridderstraat (M76) Netherlands secular rural village Early medieval Cremer,
  708. (1998). Mediolanum France ceremonial temple-shrine Roman Wiethold,
  709. (1992). Mengen/Do Tal Josaphat Germany secular urban town minor medieval
  710. (1992). Mengen/Donau Germany secular urban town minor medieval
  711. (1995). Middelburg-Balans '93 Netherlands secular rural elite Early medieval
  712. (1995). Midi Belgium secular urban town major medieval Laurent Ch.
  713. (1973). military extramural Roman Knorzer,
  714. (1988). military extramural Roman Korber-Grohne/Rosch
  715. (1993). military intramural
  716. military intramural Roman Knorzer,
  717. Mirebeau-sur-Bèze France town minor Roman Pradat,
  718. (1990). Mittelhofen Germany secular rural village Early medieval
  719. (1990). Mittelhofen Germany secular rural village medieval
  720. (1992). Moats and gardens: plant and invertebrate remains from the Roman Great
  721. (2002). Mogontiacum Germany ceremonial temple-shrine
  722. (1984). Monnickendam-Kerkstraat 49-53 Netherlands secular rural village medieval Hogestijn,
  723. (1993). Monségur France ceremonial burial Roman Marinval, Ph.
  724. (1985). Monster-kasteel Polanen Netherlands secular rural elite medieval Bult,
  725. (1996). Mont Beauvray (OPPIDUM) France rural nucleated
  726. (1996). Mont Beauvray France ceremonial burial
  727. (1999). Montaigut France secular rural elite medieval Ruas,
  728. (1999). Montauban France secular urban town minor medieval Ruas, M-P.
  729. (1998). Montbéliard France secular urban town minor medieval Lundstrom-Baudais,
  730. (2001). Montboucher-sur-Jabron France secular rural lesser medieval Bouby, L.
  731. (1996). Montfoort-Antoniushuis Netherlands secular urban town minor medieval
  732. (1958). Montmaurin France ceremonial burial
  733. Moritzplatz 6 Germany secular urban town major medieval
  734. (1998). Moulin Neuf France secular rural lesser medieval
  735. (1992). Moulins-sur-Céphons France secular rural elite medieval Ruas,
  736. (2002). Møllegade Denmark secular urban town major medieval
  737. (1994). Münsterhügel' Switzerland secular urban town minor Early medieval
  738. (1980). Münsterplatz Germany secular urban town major medieval Knorzer,
  739. (1993). Museum 83-5 Great Britain military intramural Roman Caseldine,
  740. (1993). Mytongate 75 Great Britain secular urban town major medieval
  741. (1975). Nages-et-Solorgues France rural elite
  742. (1994). Nauheim AK81 Germany ceremonial burial
  743. (2002). Næstved Denmark secular urban town minor medieval Robinson, Harild 1997e
  744. (1989). near Aldenhoven Germany rural elite Roman Knorzer,
  745. (1998). near Dijon France secular rural lesser medieval Wiethold,
  746. (1951). near Hadrian's Wall Great Britain ceremonial temple-shrine Roman Blackburn,
  747. (1987). Netherlands military intramural
  748. (1984). Netherlands military intramural Roman Buurman,
  749. (1955). Netherlands military intramural Roman Ledden Hulsebosch,
  750. Netherlands military intramural Roman Zeist, W. van 1968. Prehistoric and Early Historic Foodplants in the Netherlands.
  751. Netherlands rural lesser
  752. (1984). Netherlands rural lesser Roman Buurman,
  753. (1966). Netherlands secular rural lesser Early medieval Zeist, W. van 1968. Prehistoric and Early Historic Foodplants in the Netherlands.
  754. Netherlands secular rural non elite Early medieval
  755. (2000). Netherlands secular rural non elite Early medieval Vernimmen,
  756. Netherlands secular rural non elite medieval
  757. (1987). Netherlands secular rural village Early medieval Pals,
  758. (1983). Netherlands secular urban castle medieval
  759. (1986). Netherlands secular urban town major Early medieval
  760. (2001). Netherlands secular urban town major medieval
  761. Netherlands secular urban town major medieval Haaster, H. van 2003. Archeobotanica uit ’s-Hertogenbosch. Milieuomstandigheden, bewoningsgeschiedenis en economische ontwikkelingen in en rond een (post)middeleeuwse groeistad.
  762. (1986). Netherlands secular urban town major medieval Kuijper,
  763. (1992). Neuseser Tal Germany rural nucleated Roman Labor f. Archaobotanik LDA Hemmenhofen, unpublished
  764. (1992). Neuseser Tal Germany secular rural village Early medieval Labor f. Archaobotanik LDA Hemmenhofen, unpublished
  765. (1990). Neuwiesenäcker Germany secular rural village Early medieval
  766. (1983). New Inn Court 72, Oxford Great Britain secular urban town major Early medieval
  767. (1999). New Radnor Great Britain secular urban town minor medieval Caseldine,
  768. Newbury Great Britain secular urban town minor medieval G Campbell db: the references of the sites are not mentioned and it is not clear which site corresonds to which reference from her bibliographical list.
  769. (2002). Newcastle upon Tyne Great Britain secular urban town major medieval
  770. (2003). Newgate Street 3-9 Great Britain secular urban town major medieval Davies,
  771. (1996). Niedermörmter Germany shipwreck Early medieval Knorzer,
  772. (1999). Niederstraße Germany secular urban town major medieval
  773. (1993). Nieuwenhoorn 09-89 Netherlands rural lesser
  774. (1994). Nijmegen-Canisiuscollege II Netherlands military intramural
  775. (1999). Noir Bois Switzerland town minor Roman Brombacher,
  776. Noordbarge-Hooge Loo Netherlands rural non elite Roman Zeist, W. van 1983. Plant remains from Iron Age Noordbarge, province of Drenthe, the Netherlands.
  777. (1990). Northmoor, nr Oxford Great Britain rural lesser
  778. Norwich Great Britain secular urban castle medieval Murphy,
  779. Norwich Great Britain secular urban town minor medieval Murphy,
  780. (1949). Note sur les Pieux, debris d'objets divers et de fruits exhumes lors des fouilles du Vieux-Port a Marseille.
  781. (2001). Nouret France rural elite
  782. (2003). Nouvelles Donnees Carpologiques Relatives a la Periode Gallo-Romaine en Regions Picardie et Ile-de-France.
  783. (1986). nr Alton Great Britain town minor
  784. (2000). nr Edinburgh Great Britain military intramural Roman Dickson and Dickson
  785. (1993). nr Heybridge Great Britain rural lesser
  786. (1932). nr Malton Great Britain rural elite Roman Blackburn,
  787. (1996). nr Marne-la-Vallée France secular rural elite Early medieval
  788. (1996). nr Marne-la-Vallée France secular rural village Early medieval
  789. (1974). nr Orpington Great Britain rural elite Roman Arthur,
  790. (1977). nr Scunthorpe Great Britain rural elite
  791. (1989). nr Snaith Great Britain secular rural elite medieval Hayfield
  792. (1985). nr Stamford Great Britain rural lesser Roman Green,
  793. nr Winchester Great Britain rural nucleated Roman G Campbell db: the references of the sites are not mentioned and it is not clear which site corresonds to which reference from her bibliographical list.
  794. (1991). nr Winchester Great Britain secular rural village Early medieval Carruthers,
  795. Nußloch Germany secular rural village medieval Manfred Rosch (database).
  796. (2002). Nytorv 17 Denmark secular urban town major medieval
  797. Ober-Unter der Neumühle” Germany rural elite Roman Konig, M in preparation Wittlich, “Ober-Unter der Neumuhle”.
  798. (1999). Obere Hauptgasse Switzerland secular urban town minor medieval
  799. (2001). Obere Karspüle 19 Germany secular urban town major medieval
  800. (2005). Obere-Point' Germany rural lesser Roman Wiethold,
  801. (2005). Obere-Point' Germany secular rural village Early medieval
  802. (2001). Oberhausen Germany religious monastery rural medieval Knorzer,
  803. (2002). Oberlinden 19 Germany secular urban town minor medieval Sillmann
  804. Oberlöstern Germany ceremonial burial Roman Kroll,
  805. Oberndorf-Bochingen Germany rural elite Roman Manfred Rosch (database).
  806. (1984). Oberstrasse Germany secular urban town major medieval Knorzer, K-H.
  807. (1993). Oberursel-Bommersheim Germany secular rural elite medieval Kreuz, A.
  808. OBM 6715 Denmark secular rural lesser Early medieval Henriksen unpublished. Odense Bys Museer.
  809. (2002). Odense Denmark secular urban town minor medieval Robinson, Harild 1996c
  810. (2004). Offrandes alimentaires d’origine végétale en contexte funéraire gallo-romaine. Nouveau regard.
  811. (1948). Oksbøl Denmark secular rural lesser Early medieval Hatt
  812. (1988). Oldeboorn Netherlands secular rural non elite medieval
  813. (1991). Oldenburg Germany secular urban town minor Early medieval
  814. (2002). Oldenzaal-Schoolstraat Netherlands secular urban town minor medieval
  815. (1994). Olproduktion und/oder Fasergewinnung? Uber einen romerzeitlichen Hanffund aus Erden/Mosel. Funde und Ausgrabungen im Berzirk Trier 26.
  816. One Poultry Great Britain secular urban town major Early medieval Davies,
  817. One Poultry Great Britain secular urban town major medieval Davies,
  818. One Poultry Great Britain town major Roman Davies,
  819. (1989). Oostburg-Rabobank Netherlands secular rural non elite medieval
  820. (2003). Oostzaan-Kerkbuurt Netherlands secular rural village medieval Smeerdijk,
  821. (1984). Oostzaan-Zuideinde 64A Netherlands secular rural lesser medieval Pals,
  822. (1999). Ornaisons France secular rural village Early medieval Ruas,
  823. (2002). Ortenburg Germany secular urban castle medieval
  824. (1980). Oss-IJsselstraat-Rom Netherlands rural lesser Roman Bakels,
  825. Oss-Ussen Vijver Netherlands rural lesser
  826. (1993). Ouches du Bourg Pithiviers-le-Vieil France town major Roman Marinval,
  827. Ouddorp-Oude Oostdijk revisited Netherlands rural lesser Roman Zeist, W. van 1974. Palaeobotanical studies of settlement sites in the coastal area of the Netherlands.
  828. (2004). Ouest centre Giratoire du Boulevard Périphérique Nord, Lyon France ceremonial burial Roman Marinval,
  829. (2001). Ouest du Parc France rural lesser
  830. (1985). Oxford Great Britain religious monastery urban medieval
  831. (2002). Øm Denmark religious monastery rural medieval Jensen 1986, 1988, 1991a, Robinson, Harild, Boldsen in press
  832. (1938). Østebølle Denmark rural lesser Roman Hatt
  833. (1985). Packhof Germany secular urban town major medieval Willerding, U.
  834. (1993). Paladru France secular rural village medieval
  835. (1991). Paleoenvironnement Holocene et archeologie dans les Alpes du Nord et leur Piemond. Editions du Comite des Travaux historiques et Scientifiques.
  836. (1992). Park 86 Great Britain rural lesser
  837. (2001). Pâture de Grands Valuzaux France rural elite
  838. (2004). Paul Trois Châteaux, Rhôn France ceremonial burial
  839. (1985). Paulnay France rural elite
  840. (1994). Peelo-Haverland Netherlands secular rural village Early medieval
  841. (1994). Peelo-Hovinge Netherlands secular rural village Early medieval
  842. (1994). Peelo-Hovinge Netherlands secular rural village medieval
  843. (2001). Peins-Oost Netherlands rural non elite
  844. (2001). Peins-Oost Netherlands secular rural non elite Early medieval
  845. (1984). Peinturm Germany secular urban town major medieval Knorzer, K-H.
  846. (1993). Pérignat-sur-Allier France ceremonial burial Roman Marinval, Ph.
  847. Périgueux France town minor Roman Pradat,
  848. (1986). Pesse Netherlands secular rural village medieval
  849. (1982). Petersgrube 17-27 Germany secular urban town major medieval
  850. (1991). Petersgrube Germany secular urban town major medieval Alsleben,
  851. (1985). Petersilienstraße Germany secular urban town major medieval Willerding, U.
  852. (1997). Pfarrgasse 9 Germany secular urban town minor medieval Rosch/Fischer
  853. (1998). Pfarrkirche Germany secular rural village medieval Rosch 1994 (Rot am See).
  854. (2000). Pflanzenreste aus der gallo-romischen villa rustica von Sehndorf.
  855. (2001). Pflanzliche Ernahrung im romischen Augsburg. Eine archaobotanische Analyse:
  856. (1995). Piesport Germany rural lesser
  857. Pieterskerk Netherlands secular urban town major medieval Haaster, H. van 2003. Archeobotanica uit ’s-Hertogenbosch. Milieuomstandigheden, bewoningsgeschiedenis en economische ontwikkelingen in en rond een (post)middeleeuwse groeistad.
  858. (1995). Pilsting Germany secular rural lesser medieval
  859. (2004). Plaine de la montagne' France rural elite Roman Le Calve
  860. (2005). Plaissan-les Termes France secular rural village Early medieval Ruas,
  861. (2008). Plant economies and village life in Neolithic lake dwellings at the time of the Alpine Iceman. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany
  862. (1989). Plant remains from Annetwell Street Carlisle, Cumbria: the bulk samples.
  863. (2001). Plant Remains from the Roman River Edge at Brayford Wharf East (BWE 82),
  864. (1987). Platz Germany secular urban town major Early medieval Knorzer,
  865. Ploisy France rural lesser Roman Matterne,
  866. (2004). Pontarion, West-Centre France France ceremonial burial
  867. (2002). Pontefract Castle 82-6 Great Britain secular rural elite Early medieval Bastow M.
  868. (2002). Pontefract Castle 82-6 Great Britain secular urban castle medieval Bastow M.
  869. (1997). Poortugaal 11-63 Netherlands secular rural lesser medieval Brinkkemper, O.
  870. (1997). Poortugaal 11-64 Netherlands secular rural lesser medieval Brinkkemper, O.
  871. (1989). Port de la Selva Spain shipwreck medieval
  872. (1989). Port de la Selva Spain shipwreck Roman Buxo,
  873. (1995). Postglaziale Vegetationgeschichte Sudbayerns. Geobotanische Studien zur Prahistorischen Landschaftskunde. Akademie Verlag. Berlin. GmbH. Collective article citing the work of various authors.
  874. (1985). Pottergate (31-51) (Norwich) 73 Great Britain secular urban town major medieval Murphy P.
  875. Pré de l'Arche Switzerland ceremonial burial Roman Petrucci-Bavaud unpublished (database).
  876. (2004). Provence France ceremonial burial
  877. (2005). Puissalicon France secular rural village Early medieval Ruas,
  878. (2005). Puisserguier France secular rural village Early medieval Ruas,
  879. (1999). Purmerend-Purmersteijn Netherlands secular rural elite medieval
  880. (2002). Quai Taille Pierre Belgium religious monastery urban medieval Laurent, Ch.
  881. (2005). Quarante France secular rural village medieval Ruas,
  882. Quevaucamps Belgium rural lesser Roman Defgnee A., Laurent C., Dumont Gaelle unpublished. Mouscron/Moucron-Estaimpuis/Estaimpuis : etude archeobotanique du contenu d’un puits romain. Chronique de l’Archeologie
  883. (1979). Quirinusstraße Germany secular urban town major medieval Knorzer,
  884. (1994). Raalte-De Zegge Netherlands secular rural non elite medieval
  885. (2001). Rachtig Kelteranlage Germany rural lesser Roman Konig, M in preparation. Zeltingen-Rachtig, Kreis Bernkastel-Wittlich. Jahresbericht des Landesamtes fur Denkmalpflege, Amt Trier, fur den Regierungsbezirk Trier und den Kreis Birkenfeld (au?er Stadtbereich)
  886. (1998). Rainau-Buch Germany military extramural Roman Piening, U. 1982a/b (Bad Mergentheim,
  887. (1996). Rainau-Buch Germany military extramural Roman Stika
  888. (1988). Rathaus Germany secular urban town major medieval Knorzer,
  889. (1996). Rathausplatz Switzerland secular urban town minor medieval
  890. (2004). Raurica) Switzerland town major Roman Petrucci-Bavaud and Jacomet 2002. and (for 1st c and aditions)
  891. (1999). Raversijde beerput Belgium secular rural village medieval Cooremans B.
  892. (2004). Ravin Flobert' France rural elite Roman Le Calve
  893. (1906). Recent discoveries in connection with Roman London.
  894. Regensburg Germany rural elite Roman Kuster
  895. (1996). Reimerswaal-Kasteel Netherlands secular urban castle medieval
  896. Reinacherhof Switzerland rural nucleated Roman Petrucci-Bavaud (database).
  897. religious cemetery/burial Early medieval Rosch/Fischer
  898. (1988). religious monastery rural medieval
  899. religious monastery rural medieval Brombacher et al. In preparation (database).
  900. (2004). Report on the plant remains from Gresham Street 8/04.
  901. (2004). Rhôn France ceremonial burial
  902. (1972). Ribe Denmark secular urban town major medieval Bencard,
  903. (2002). Ribe Denmark various trading centre Early medieval Robinson, Boldsen and Harild in press
  904. (1993). Ribe Posthus Denmark various trading centre Early medieval
  905. Riedfluh Switzerland secular rural elite medieval Jacomet et al.1988.
  906. Rittergasse/Bäumleingasse Switzerland military extramural Roman Brombacher unpubished (database).
  907. (1998). Rittergasse/Bäumleingasse Switzerland secular urban town major medieval
  908. (1998). river port of Pommeroeul Belgium town minor Roman Laurent Ch.,
  909. Rne Grünenberg Switzerland secular rural elite medieval Brombacher und Schlumbaum in preparation (database).
  910. (1998). Road Great Britain secular urban town major medieval Davies,
  911. (1993). Rockanje II Netherlands rural lesser
  912. (1996). Römerbad Germany military extramural Roman Stika
  913. (1980). Romerzeitliche Pflanzenfunde aus Aachen-Burtscheid.
  914. (1967). Romerzeitliche Pflanzenfunde aus Aachen.
  915. (1992). Romerzeitliche Pflanzenfunde aus der Kelteranlage in Piesport-Mustert. Funde und Ausgrabungen im Berzirk Trier 24.
  916. (1998). Romerzeitliche Pflanzenfunde.
  917. (2001). Rosière France rural elite
  918. (2002). Roskilde Denmark secular urban town major medieval Robinson, Harild 1996a, Robinson 2000b
  919. (1996). Rosshof Switzerland secular urban town major medieval Kuhn
  920. Rostock Germany secular rural village medieval Neef
  921. (1998). Rotkreuzstraße Germany rural lesser Roman Piening, U. 1982a/b (Bad Mergentheim,
  922. (2002). Rotterdam-Binnenrotte Netherlands secular urban town minor medieval
  923. (1996). Rotterdam-Spoortunnel 13-26 Netherlands secular urban town minor medieval
  924. (1996). Rotterdam-Spoortunnel 13-27 Netherlands secular rural lesser medieval
  925. (1996). Rotterdam-Spoortunnel 13-28 Netherlands secular rural lesser medieval
  926. Rottweil Germany secular urban town major medieval Manfred Rosch (database).
  927. Rottweil Germany town major Roman Manfred Rosch (database).
  928. (2001). Rouen France secular urban town major Early medieval
  929. (2001). Rouen France secular urban town major medieval
  930. (2003). Royal Opera House Great Britain various trading centre Early medieval Davies, A.
  931. Rüden-Buchsbaum Switzerland secular urban town minor medieval Brombacher und Klee in preparation (database).
  932. (1997). Rue d'Une Personne, Bruxelles Belgium secular urban town major medieval Laurent, Ch.
  933. Rue Gambetta France town major Roman Pradat,
  934. (2001). Rue sous-le-Château Belgium secular urban town major Early medieval Laurent Ch.
  935. (2001). Rue sous-le-Château Belgium secular urban town major medieval Laurent Ch.
  936. (1979). rural elite Roman Korber-Grohne/Piening
  937. rural elite Roman Stika
  938. rural nucleated
  939. (1996). rural nucleated Roman Stika
  940. s-Hertogenbosch Boerenmouw Netherlands secular urban town major medieval Haaster, H. van 2003. Archeobotanica uit ’s-Hertogenbosch. Milieuomstandigheden, bewoningsgeschiedenis en economische ontwikkelingen in en rond een (post)middeleeuwse groeistad.
  941. s-Hertogenbosch Hooghuis van Megen Netherlands secular rural elite medieval Brink, L.M. van der 1986. Botanische resten uit de beerput van het Hooghuis van Megen. Intern Rapport Gemeentelijk Oudheidkundig Bodemonderzoek 's-Hertogenbosch.
  942. s-Hertogenbosch Paradeplein Netherlands secular urban town major medieval Haaster, H. van 2003. Archeobotanica uit ’s-Hertogenbosch. Milieuomstandigheden, bewoningsgeschiedenis en economische ontwikkelingen in en rond een (post)middeleeuwse groeistad.
  943. (1988). s-Hertogenbosch Postelstraat 16-18 Netherlands secular urban town major medieval Tomlinson,
  944. s-Hertogenbosch Spuistroom Netherlands secular urban town major medieval Haaster, H. van 2003. Archeobotanica uit ’s-Hertogenbosch. Milieuomstandigheden, bewoningsgeschiedenis en economische ontwikkelingen in en rond een (post)middeleeuwse groeistad.
  945. s-Hertogenbosch Volderstraat Netherlands secular urban town major medieval Haaster, H. van 2003. Archeobotanica uit ’s-Hertogenbosch. Milieuomstandigheden, bewoningsgeschiedenis en economische ontwikkelingen in en rond een (post)middeleeuwse groeistad.
  946. s-Hertogenbosch-Sint-Janskerkhof Netherlands secular urban town major medieval Haaster, H. van 1997. Plantaardige en dierlijke resten uit de Middeleeuwen. De resultaten van het oecologisch onderzoek op het Sint Janskerkhof. In
  947. (1951). Saalburg AK1009 Germany military intramural Roman Baas 1951. Saalb Jb.
  948. Sabadell Spain secular rural village medieval Buxo and Roviva.
  949. (1988). Sablonetun Germany military intramural
  950. Sablons France rural nucleated Roman Matterne, V. Les fruits et les graines provenant de quelques fosses, fosses et depotoirs du site d' Estrees-Saint-Denis (Oise).
  951. (1997). Saint-Étienne à Mulhouse France secular urban town minor Early medieval Lundstrom-Baudais,
  952. Saint-Germain-des-Fossés France secular rural elite medieval Ruas, M-P 2000. Productions agricoles en Auvergne carolingienne d' apres un depotoir decouvrt a Saint-Germain-des-Fosses (Allier). Revue Archeologique du Centre de la France.
  953. (2002). Saint-Gilles-le Vieux France secular rural village medieval
  954. Saint-Rimay France secular rural lesser Early medieval Pradat,
  955. Saint-Romain-sur-Cher France rural lesser Roman Pradat,
  956. Sainte-Foy-la-Grande France secular rural elite medieval Pradat,
  957. (1998). Saintes France ceremonial burial
  958. (1994). Salisweg AK86 Germany military extramural
  959. (2002). Salzstraße Germany secular urban town minor medieval Sillmann
  960. (2004). Sandford Street Great Britain secular urban town minor medieval Ciaraldi,
  961. (1980). Scale Ln/Lowgate 74 Great Britain secular urban town major medieval Underdown S.
  962. (1999). Schagen-Waldervaart Netherlands secular rural non elite Early medieval Buurman,
  963. Schiedam-Kethel Netherlands rural lesser Roman Zeist, W. van 1974. Palaeobotanical studies of settlement sites in the coastal area of the Netherlands.
  964. (2004). Schloß Germany secular urban castle medieval Rosch
  965. (1998). Schlosskapelle Liechtenstein secular rural elite medieval Kuhn
  966. (1985). Schloßplat Germany secular urban town major Early medieval Willerding, U.
  967. (2004). Schmidgasse 5 Switzerland secular urban town minor Early medieval
  968. (1988). Schmidmatt Switzerland town major Roman Jacomet et al.
  969. Schnapsweg Germany various industrial site medieval Willerding, U. On the utilisation of the plant resources of the upper Harz Mountains by the mining and smelting industries during medieval times.
  970. (1991). Schrangen Germany secular urban town major medieval Alsleben,
  971. Schützenstraße Germany secular urban town minor medieval Manfred Rosch (database).
  972. Scole-Stuston By-pass Great Britain rural lesser
  973. (1996). secteur DDD Belgium rural elite Roman Laurent Ch.
  974. (1996). secteur DDD Belgium secular rural lesser Early medieval Laurent Ch.
  975. (1981). secular rural elite medieval
  976. (1984). secular rural elite medieval Knorzer, K-H.
  977. (1996). secular rural lesser Early medieval
  978. (1996). secular rural lesser Early medieval Cooremans B.
  979. secular rural lesser Early medieval Ruhmann,
  980. (1988). secular rural lesser medieval
  981. (1995). secular rural village Early medieval
  982. (1990). secular rural village medieval
  983. secular rural village medieval Manfred Rosch (database).
  984. (1988). secular urban castle medieval
  985. (1998). secular urban town major medieval
  986. (1991). secular urban town major medieval Behre,
  987. (1985). secular urban town major medieval Jessen and Lind 1922-3 In
  988. secular urban town major medieval Knorzer, K-H.
  989. (1989). secular urban town major medieval Kuster
  990. secular urban town major medieval Neef database [4]
  991. (1906). secular urban town major medieval Rostup
  992. (1992). secular urban town minor medieval
  993. (1988). secular urban town minor medieval Gregor,
  994. (1998). secular urban town minor medieval Labor f. Archaobotanik LDA Hemmenhofen, unpublished data.
  995. secular urban town minor medieval Neef database [3]
  996. (1995). Seebruck Germany rural nucleated
  997. (1998). Seedammstraße Germany military intramural Roman Froschle 1994 (Osterburken). In Manfred Rosch db and
  998. (1977). Seeds from cess pit 47.
  999. (1996). Seelen Germany rural elite
  1000. (1996). Seelen Germany rural elite Roman Stika
  1001. (1986). Segontium (Roman Caernarvon) Great Britain military intramural Roman Hillman, G.
  1002. (1999). Self-sufficiency and the market: rural and urban diet in the Middle Ages.
  1003. (1988). Semences et fruits, recherches sur les donnees carpologiques dans les niveaux antiques de Lattes. Introduction l' etude de l'environnement de Lates Antique. C.N.R.S. ATP 'Archeologie Metropolitaine'. Buxo,
  1004. Servon France rural elite Roman Le Calve 2004. Carpologie sur le trace du TGV Nord: petite histoire d' etsblissements ruraux antiques de la Gaule septentrionale. Memoire de DEA 'Environnement et archeologie'.
  1005. (1987). Shackerley Mound 81 Great Britain secular rural elite medieval Greig,
  1006. Shepton Mallet Great Britain town minor Roman Straker, S. unpublished (b). Charred plant macrofossils from Fosse Lane,
  1007. (1994). Siegburg Germany secular urban town minor medieval Knorzer,
  1008. (2005). Sijsele/Damme Belgium rural nucleated Roman In't
  1009. (1980). Sittard-gasthuis Netherlands secular urban town minor medieval Bakels,
  1010. (2002). Smedegård Denmark rural nucleated
  1011. (1991). Snettisham By-pass Great Britain rural lesser
  1012. Solothurn Switzerland ceremonial burial Roman Jacomet/Iseli unpublished Romanization project [521].
  1013. (1998). Sontheim Braike Germany military extramural Roman Labor f. Archaobotanik LDA Hemmenhofen, unpublished data.
  1014. Sorigny France secular rural lesser Early medieval Pradat,
  1015. Souhesmes France rural lesser Roman Laurent, Ch. unpublished. Resultats des analyses micro-archeologiques et carpologiques realisees sur le site des Souhesmes
  1016. Souhesmes France secular rural lesser Early medieval Laurent, Ch. unpublished. Resultats des analyses micro-archeologiques et carpologiques realisees sur le site des Souhesmes
  1017. (1975). Southampton (various sites) Great Britain secular urban town major medieval Dimbleby,
  1018. (1998). Southfleat Great Britain town minor Roman Cambell,
  1019. (2003). Southwark 1974-90 Great Britain town major Roman Davies,
  1020. Southwark Great Britain secular urban town major medieval
  1021. Southwark Great Britain town major Roman Tyers, I.
  1022. (1992). Sødersø Denmark secular urban town minor medieval
  1023. Søndergade Denmark secular urban town minor medieval
  1024. Spa development Great Britain town minor Roman Pelling, R.
  1025. (1992). Speke Hall 81-2, nr Liverpool Great Britain secular rural elite medieval
  1026. Speyrer Str. Germany rural nucleated Roman Manfred Rosch (database).
  1027. Spitalhof Switzerland ceremonial burial Roman Petrucci-Bavaud (database).
  1028. Spitalhof Switzerland rural elite Roman Petrucci-Bavaud (database).
  1029. (1990). Sros, Lleida Spain secular urban town minor Early medieval Cubero,
  1030. (1975). St 71, Winchester Great Britain ceremonial temple-shrine Roman Ross,
  1031. (1982). St 77-8, Aberdeen Great Britain secular urban town minor medieval
  1032. (1992). St 81-5, Colchester Great Britain secular urban town minor medieval
  1033. (1992). St 81-5, Colchester Great Britain town major Roman
  1034. (1987). St Annes Ln, Nantwich Great Britain rural nucleated Roman Tomlinson P.
  1035. St Arnual Germany religious monastery urban medieval Wiethold, J. in press. Archaobotanische Analysen an spatromischen und mittelalterlichen Pflanzenresten aus dem Kreuzgang der Stiftskirche von St. Arnual, Stadt Saarbrucken. In:
  1036. (1991). St Johanniskloster Germany religious monastery urban medieval Alsleben,
  1037. (2004). St-Germain-les Vergnes France ceremonial burial Roman Marinval, Ph.
  1038. (2000). St, Salisbury Great Britain secular urban town major medieval Hinton P.
  1039. St., Kingston Great Britain secular urban town major medieval
  1040. (1994). St., Pershore Great Britain secular urban town minor medieval Moffett L.
  1041. (1995). St., Perth Great Britain secular urban town minor medieval
  1042. Stadtmauer Germany secular urban town minor medieval Manfred Rosch (database).
  1043. (2004). Stadtplatz Switzerland secular urban town minor medieval Brombacher und Schlumbaum
  1044. (1979). Staith 78, Kingston-upon-Hull Great Britain secular urban town major medieval Underdown S.
  1045. (1996). Steinäcker Germany rural elite Roman Stika
  1046. (1995). Steinbiegl and Käserfeld Germany military extramural
  1047. (1996). Steinmäurich Germany rural elite
  1048. Steinmöri Switzerland rural elite Roman Klee (database).
  1049. (1996). Steinwandel Germany town major Roman Stika
  1050. (1977). Stengade Denmark religious cemetery/burial Early medieval Fredskild
  1051. Sternberg Germany secular rural lesser Early medieval Neef database [30]
  1052. (1996). Stettfeld several excavations Germany rural nucleated Roman Stika
  1053. (1993). Steyning Great Britain secular rural village Early medieval Hinton P.
  1054. Stockbridge Great Britain rural lesser Roman G Campbell db: the references of the sites are not mentioned and it is not clear which site corresonds to which reference from her bibliographical list.
  1055. (1998). Stone Great Britain secular urban town minor medieval Moffett L.
  1056. (1983). Str. Germany military extramural Roman Korber-Grohne/Piening
  1057. Str. Germany secular rural village Early medieval Manfred Rosch (database).
  1058. Str. Germany secular rural village medieval Manfred Rosch (database).
  1059. (1999). Straße 34-36 Germany secular urban town major medieval
  1060. (2000). Straße 55-56 Germany secular urban town major medieval
  1061. (1997). Straße Germany secular urban town major medieval
  1062. (1995). Straubing Gräberfeld Bajuwarenstraße Germany religious cemetery/burial Early medieval
  1063. (1995). Straubing-Azlburg Germany secular urban town minor Early medieval
  1064. (2002). Stræde, Roskilde Denmark secular urban town major medieval Robinson, Harild 1996a, Robinson 2000b
  1065. (2004). Street/30-38 Hosier Lane Great Britain secular urban town major medieval Roberts,
  1066. (1996). Struijs Netherlands secular urban town major medieval
  1067. (1991). Stummrige Straße 20 Germany secular urban town minor medieval
  1068. Suddern Farm 91 Great Britain rural nucleated Roman Campbell, G 2000(c). Charred plant remains.
  1069. (1998). Suisstraat Netherlands secular urban town major medieval
  1070. (1998). Sunnhalde Switzerland rural elite Roman Brombacher
  1071. (2002). Susåen Denmark secular urban town minor medieval
  1072. (1979). Svendborg Denmark secular urban town minor medieval
  1073. (2002). Svendborg Denmark secular urban town minor medieval Jensen 1979, 1988, 1991a
  1074. (1980). Svendborg Denmark secular urban town minor medieval Jorgensen
  1075. (2002). Svendborg Denmark secular urban town minor medieval Robinson, Harild unpublished
  1076. (2003). Switzerland military intramural
  1077. (1908). Switzerland military intramural Roman Neuweiler
  1078. Switzerland rural elite Roman Brombacher unpublished Romanization project [77].
  1079. Switzerland secular rural elite medieval Akeret in preparation (database).
  1080. Switzerland secular urban town minor medieval
  1081. (1975). Sylt Germany rural nucleated
  1082. (1975). Sylt Germany secular rural village Early medieval
  1083. (1979). Tanyard Ln 77 Great Britain secular urban town minor medieval
  1084. (1984). Taunton Priory 80 Great Britain religious monastery urban medieval
  1085. (1992). Tavers France secular rural lesser Early medieval Ruas,
  1086. (2000). Technical Report: Environment and industry at Layerthorpe Bridge, York (site code YORYM 1996.345).Reports from the EAU,
  1087. (1998). Temple of Mithras, London Great Britain ceremonial temple-shrine Roman Wardle, A.
  1088. (1991). Templerhaus Germany secular urban town minor medieval Willerding, U.
  1089. (1994). Tenedo Switzerland military extramural
  1090. Teterow Germany secular rural elite medieval Neef
  1091. the Baptist, Oxford Great Britain secular urban town major medieval G Campbell db: the references of the sites are not mentioned and it is not clear which site corresonds to which reference from her bibliographical list.
  1092. (1993). The Bedern (Foundry), York Great Britain secular urban town major medieval
  1093. (1983). The Bedern 73-81, York Great Britain secular urban town major medieval
  1094. (1986). The Bedern 76-81, Aldwark Street, York Great Britain various trading centre Early medieval
  1095. (1986). The Bedern 76-81, York Great Britain military intramural
  1096. (2002). The botanical material. (and Apps.
  1097. (1979). The Franciscan monastery, Svendborg Denmark religious monastery urban medieval
  1098. (1980). The Hamel 75-6 Great Britain secular urban town major medieval
  1099. (1992). The Lanes, Carlisle Great Britain military extramural
  1100. (1992). The Lanes, Carlisle Great Britain secular urban town major medieval
  1101. (2002). The London Charterhouse Great Britain religious monastery urban medieval
  1102. (2002). The London Charterhouse Great Britain secular urban town major medieval
  1103. (2000). The plant remains - a summary.
  1104. (2001). The plant remains from Broadgate.
  1105. (1992). The plant remains.
  1106. (1984). The Roman Fortress Ditch at Exeter Great Britain military intramural
  1107. (2004). Thurnham Well Great Britain rural elite
  1108. (1989). Tibbets Close 83-4, Alcester Great Britain town minor
  1109. (1988). Tiddington, nr Thame Great Britain rural nucleated
  1110. (1996). Tiel-Koornmarkt Netherlands secular urban town major medieval
  1111. Tinggård Denmark secular rural village medieval Henriksen,
  1112. (1997). Tintagel Great Britain various trading centre Early medieval Straker, V,
  1113. (1972). Tofting Germany rural nucleated Roman Behre
  1114. (2005). Töpferstraße/Breite straße Germany secular urban town minor medieval
  1115. Tornow Germany rural nucleated Roman Neef
  1116. Tornow Germany secular rural lesser Early
  1117. (1976). Torp Netherlands secular rural non elite medieval
  1118. (2001). Touffréville France rural elite
  1119. (1999). Tønderhus Denmark secular rural elite medieval
  1120. (2005). Treurenberg Belgium secular urban town major medieval Laurent Ch.
  1121. (2000). tristem cultu aspectuque'? Archaobotanische Ergbnisse zur fruhen germanischen Landwirtschaft in Hessen und Mainfranken.
  1122. (1997). Tüschnitz Germany secular rural elite medieval
  1123. Tzummarum-Monnikenterp Netherlands secular rural non elite Early medieval Zeist, W. van 1974. Palaeobotanical studies of settlement sites in the coastal area of the Netherlands.
  1124. (1999). Ueckerstraße 28-37 Germany secular urban town minor medieval
  1125. (1986). Uitgeest 54 Netherlands rural lesser
  1126. (1988). Uitgeest-Floretijnse veld Netherlands rural lesser
  1127. (1998). Ulm Germany secular urban town major medieval
  1128. Ulpia Traiana Germany town major Roman Hinz, H. mit einem Exkurs von
  1129. und 6 von Augusta Raurica. Forsch Augst 21. Augst:
  1130. (1995). Unter Mötschert“ Germany rural lesser
  1131. (1992). Unterregenbach Germany secular rural village medieval
  1132. (1986). Untertrave 97 Germany secular urban town major medieval
  1133. (1986). Upper Bugle St 73-4, Southampton Great Britain secular urban town major medieval
  1134. (1980). Upper Thames St, City of London Great Britain secular urban town major medieval Willcox,
  1135. (1980). Upper thames Street Great Britain town major
  1136. (1990). Upper Walbrook Valley, Copthall Avenue, London Great Britain secular urban town major medieval de Moulins,
  1137. (1990). Upper Walbrook Valley, Copthall Avenue, London Great Britain town major Roman de Moulins,
  1138. Utrecht-Dorstige Harthof e.o. Netherlands secular urban town major medieval Brink, L.M. van der 1984. Dorstige Harthof en omgeving. Maandblad Oud Utrecht 8-9:
  1139. Valkenburg-Marktveld III Netherlands military extramural Roman Brinkkemper,
  1140. (2000). Vallensbæk Nordmark Denmark secular rural lesser Early medieval
  1141. Varen France secular rural lesser Early medieval Durand, F. Varen “Al Claus”(81), Bilan triennial (Unpublished report).
  1142. Varen France secular rural lesser medieval Durand, F. Varen “Al Claus”(81), Bilan triennial (Unpublished report).
  1143. (1996). Vechten-Bunnik Netherlands military intramural
  1144. (2003). Veere-Domburg Netherlands secular rural elite Early medieval
  1145. (2003). Venray-de Hulst II Netherlands rural non elite
  1146. (1991). Venray-Hoogriebroek Netherlands rural non elite
  1147. (1999). Verrebroekdok Belgium secular rural lesser medieval
  1148. (1971). Vestiges Vegetaux decouverts dans des puits Gallo-Romaines a Grand (Vosges).
  1149. (1990). VI- Examen de macrorestes vegetaux sur le site de portout 2.
  1150. (1992). Viehmarkt Germany secular urban town minor medieval Rosch/Schmid
  1151. (1989). Viladamat Spain rural elite
  1152. (2004). Villelongue-d'Aude, Languedoc France ceremonial burial
  1153. (2005). Villeneuve-de-la-Raho France secular rural village medieval Ruas,
  1154. (2004). Villeneuve-lès-Bèziers France ceremonial burial Roman Marinval, Ph.
  1155. (1988). Villiers-le-Sec France secular rural village Early medieval Ruas,
  1156. (1988). Villiers-le-Sec France secular rural village medieval Ruas,
  1157. (1998). Villingen Gerberstraße Germany secular urban town minor medieval Rosch 1999a,b.
  1158. (1998). Villingen Germany secular urban town minor medieval Rosch 1999a,b.
  1159. (1998). Villingen Kaisserring2/Hof Germany secular urban town minor medieval Rosch 1999a,b.
  1160. (1998). Villingen Rietstraße Germany secular urban town minor medieval Rosch 1999a,b.
  1161. (1998). Villingen Rietzentrum Germany secular urban town minor medieval Rosch 1999a,b.
  1162. Vindolanda Great Britain military intramural Roman Huntley,
  1163. Vindonissa Switzerland ceremonial burial
  1164. (1986). Vitudurum Switzerland military extramural Roman Jacquat, Ch.
  1165. (1996). Vlaardingen-Fonotheek Netherlands secular urban town major medieval
  1166. (2001). Vlaardingen-Hoogstad 5.19 Netherlands rural lesser
  1167. (2002). Vlaardingen-Kolpabad 6.123 Netherlands secular urban town major medieval
  1168. (2002). Vleuten-Balije Netherlands rural lesser
  1169. Vleuten-Nijevelt Netherlands secular rural elite medieval
  1170. Vöhingen Germany secular rural village medieval Manfred Rosch (database).
  1171. Vorderfeld Switzerland military extramural Roman Klee in preparation (database).
  1172. Vorstadt 40/42 Switzerland secular urban town minor medieval Brombacher und Klee in preparation (database).
  1173. Vörstetten Germany secular rural village medieval Manfred Rosch (database).
  1174. W61A and W61B Great Britain secular urban town major medieval G Campbell db: the references of the sites are not mentioned and it is not clear which site corresonds to which reference from her bibliographical list.
  1175. (1991). Wachtendonk Germany secular rural elite medieval Knorzer,
  1176. (1994). Wahlenstraße 17 Germany secular urban town major medieval
  1177. (1990). Walheim Badstube Germany rural nucleated Roman Puhler
  1178. (2000). Wallendorf Luxemburg ceremonial temple-shrine
  1179. Wallendorf Luxemburg military intramural Roman Kroll,
  1180. Walramsneustraße Germany secular urban town minor medieval Konig, M in preparation Walramsneustra?e,
  1181. (2001). Walramsneustraße Germany town major Roman Kroll, H unpblished Romanization
  1182. (1991). Walton Rd, Aylesbury Great Britain secular rural village medieval Cauvain, S.
  1183. (1996). Wareham Great Britain secular urban town minor medieval Carruthers W.
  1184. (1988). Watergate St (12) 85, Chester Great Britain secular urban town major medieval Greig,
  1185. (1995). Wateringen-Rom-'93 Netherlands rural lesser
  1186. (1989). Waterlogged plant remains from Annetwell Street, Carlisle. Part 1: Sample Descriptions.
  1187. (2000). Weberstraße 10 Germany secular urban town major medieval
  1188. (1995). Wechselstraße Kuhnenstraße Germany secular urban town minor medieval
  1189. (1987). Weg-inheems Netherlands rural lesser Roman Vermeeren,
  1190. (1987). Weg-tempel Netherlands ceremonial temple-shrine Roman Vermeeren,
  1191. (1998). Weiterdingen Amtshaustraße Germany secular rural village medieval Labor f. Archaobotanik LDA Hemmenhofen, unpublished data.
  1192. West Deeping Great Britain rural nucleated Roman Murphy,
  1193. (2004). West-Centre France France ceremonial burial
  1194. (1997). Westminster Abbey Great Britain religious monastery urban medieval Davies, A.
  1195. (1983). Whitefriars St 79 Great Britain secular urban town major medieval Murphy P.
  1196. (1983). Whitefriars St 79 Great Britain secular urban town minor Early medieval Murphy P.
  1197. (1990). Wijk bij Duurstede-de Horden Netherlands rural non elite
  1198. (2002). Wijk bij Duurstede-Voorwijn Netherlands various trading centre Early medieval
  1199. (1999). Wijnaldum-Tjitsma Netherlands secular rural elite Early medieval Pals,
  1200. Winchester Great Britain town major Roman G Campbell db: the references of the sites are not mentioned and it is not clear which site corresonds to which reference from her bibliographical list.
  1201. (1993). Windsor Great Britain secular rural elite medieval Carruthers,
  1202. Wormser Str. Germany town minor Roman Manfred Rosch (database).
  1203. (1992). Wrac'h France shipwreck medieval Ruas,
  1204. (1991). Wurt Niens Germany secular rural village Early medieval Behre,
  1205. (2004). Yarnton Great Britain secular rural village Early medieval Greig,
  1206. (1993). York 93 Great Britain town major Roman Hall,
  1207. (1992). York Great Britain military extramural Roman Hall,
  1208. (1986). York Great Britain military intramural Roman
  1209. (1992). York Great Britain secular urban town major medieval
  1210. Zac Tulipe’ France rural lesser Roman Matterne,
  1211. (1993). Zerkegem Belgium secular rural lesser Early medieval Cooremans B.
  1212. Zirzow Neubrandenburg Germany secular rural lesser medieval Neef
  1213. (1993). Zoetermeer-Palenstein Netherlands secular rural elite medieval
  1214. Zouafques France rural nucleated Roman Le Calve 2004. Carpologie sur le trace du TGV Nord: petite histoire d' etsblissements ruraux antiques de la Gaule septentrionale. Memoire de DEA 'Environnement et archeologie'.
  1215. Zürich Switzerland rural elite Roman Klee/Jacquat unpublished Romanization project [140].
  1216. (1987). Zwolle-Praubstraat Netherlands secular urban town major medieval Pals,

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