Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Amblyopia and Visual Development

By Musarat Awan


Background: Amblyopia, ‘lazy’ eye is a unilateral or bilateral reduction in vision for which no organic cause is present by physical examination of the eye with a prevalence of approximately 3.5% of the childhood population. It is commonly associated with a strabismus, refractive error or both. The most common form of treatment is conventional occlusion (daily patching the good eye). Clinical studies have attempted to investigate the optimal treatment of the disease and investigate compliance, however an evidence-base for treatment is still incomplete.\ud Methods: The study included (i) a retrospective study of 322 amblyopic children to assess current visual outcomes in comparison to clinical effort and costs; (ii) A randomised control trial (n=52) comparing prescribed treatments of 0-hours, 3-hours and 6-hours patching per day in which compliance was electronically recorded; (iii) interviews of 25 families to explore reasons behind poor compliance; and (iv) a pilot study of educational material to improve compliance. Results: Current outcomes of amblyopia treatment are mediocre at considerable financial and time-costs. The RCT revealed poor compliance in both patching groups (3-hours and 6-hours) leading to visual improvements that were not significantly better than no patching. However, there was a clear dose-response between visual improvement and effective hours patched (p=0.00013). The interviews demonstrated emotional distress in families, lack of social acceptance, and confusion about amblyopia, its treatment and the role of professionals. Early findings indicate that an educational intervention could reduce the number of poor compliers. Conclusion: Poor compliance leads to poor visual outcomes of occlusion treatment for amblyopia. However, objective monitoring of patching demonstrates that occlusion therapy is effective. An educational intervention could address some of the problems associated with poor compliance such as poor parental understanding, providing feedback of visual improvement to the family and strategies for implementing patching as a normal routine

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 2009
OAI identifier:

Suggested articles


  1. (2003). [A new objective visual acuity test: an automated preferential looking].
  2. (1996). [Can we identify risk groups for the development of amblyopia and strabismus?].
  3. (1979). [Diplopia frequency as a result of the surgical treatment of concomitant squint].
  4. (1993). [Effective vision screening can decrease the rate of amblyopia].
  5. (2007). [Evaluation of visual acuity in a historical cohort of 137 patients treated for amblyopia by occlusion 30-35 years ago].
  6. (1967). [Incidence of functional amblyopia in Belgium].
  7. (2003). [Resource utilisation and cost of amblyopia treatment].
  8. (1983). [Strabismus and amblyopia. Value of their early detection].
  9. (1990). A longitudinal study of a population based sample of astigmatic children. I. Refraction and amblyopia.
  10. (1990). A longitudinal study of children with a family history of strabismus: factors determining the incidence of strabismus.
  11. (1984). A miniature compliance monitor for eyedrop medication.
  12. (1985). A Multidisciplinary Approach. Proctor Lecture. IOVS 26:1704-1716,
  13. (1996). A new Arabic distance visual acuity chart.
  14. (2004). A new visual evoked potential system for vision screening in infants and young children.
  15. (2002). A preliminary report about the relation between visual acuity increase and compliance in patching therapy for amblyopia.
  16. (2002). A randomised controlled trial of written information: the effect on parental non-concordance with occlusion therapy.
  17. (2005). A randomized controlled trial of unilateral strabismic and mixed amblyopia using occlusion dose monitors to record compliance.
  18. (2005). A randomized pilot study of near activities versus non-near activities during patching therapy for amblyopia.
  19. (2004). A randomized trial of atropine regimens for treatment of moderate amblyopia in children.
  20. (2003). A randomized trial of patching regimens for treatment of moderate amblyopia in children.
  21. (2003). A randomized trial of prescribed patching regimens for treatment of severe amblyopia in children.
  22. (2006). A randomized trial to evaluate 2 hours of daily patching for strabismic and anisometropic amblyopia in children.
  23. (2003). A strabismus susceptibility locus on chromosome 7p.
  24. (1991). A study of amblyopia in 18-19 year old males.
  25. (2002). A study of heredity as a risk factor in strabismus.
  26. (1996). Acuity and contrast sensitivity in monkeys after neonatal intraocular lens implantation with and without part-time occlusion of the fellow eye.
  27. (2000). Age-specific prevalence and causes of bilateral and unilateral visual impairment in older Australians: the Blue Mountains Eye Study.
  28. (1990). Amblyopia and the pediatrician.
  29. (1999). Amblyopia and visual acuity in children with Down's syndrome.
  30. (2005). Amblyopia characterization, treatment, and prophylaxis.
  31. (1979). Amblyopia occurs in retinal ganglion cells in cats reared with convergent squint without alternating fixation.
  32. (2003). Amblyopia treatment outcomes after preschool screening v school entry screening: observational data from a prospective cohort study.
  33. (2002). Amblyopia treatment outcomes after screening before or at age 3 years: follow up from randomised trial.
  34. (1988). Amblyopia--factors influencing age of presentation.
  35. (1977). Amblyopia: a long-term follow-up.
  36. (2002). Amblyopia: a multidisciplinary approach. IN
  37. (2006). Amblyopia: diagnostic and therapeutic options.
  38. (2005). Amblyopia: prevalence, natural history, functional effects and treatment.
  39. (1998). Amblyopia: the importance of early treatment.
  40. (1990). Amblyopia: the normal eye is not normal.
  41. (1993). Amblyopia. Diagnosis and management.
  42. (1991). Anisometropic amblyopia.
  43. (1991). Anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia in the age group 2 years and above: a prospective study of the results of treatment.
  44. (2008). Are there inequities in the utilisation of childhood eye-care services in relation to socioeconomic status? Evidence from the ALSPAC cohort.
  45. (2007). Assessment of a computer-based treatment for older amblyopes: the Glasgow Pilot Study.
  46. (1986). Assessment of visual acuity in infants and children: the acuity card procedure.
  47. (1997). Atropine penalisation versus occlusion as the primary treatment for amblyopia.
  48. (2002). Binocular Vision and Ocular Motility. Theory and Management of Strabismus,
  49. (1969). Biostatistical studies. Comparison of the management of suppression amblyopia by conventional patching, intensive hospital pleoptics, and intermittent office pleoptics.
  50. (1986). Can ophthalmologists correctly identify patients defaulting from pilocarpine therapy?
  51. (2006). Causes and associations of amblyopia in a population-based sample of 6-year-old Australian children.
  52. (1993). Causes of blindness in the western province of Cameroon. Rev Int Trach Pathol Ocul Trop Subtrop Sante Publique,
  53. (2004). Center-surround antagonism in spatial vision: retinal or cortical locus?
  54. (2000). Central Visual Pathways. Principles of Neuroscience. The McGraw-Hill Companies.
  55. (1991). Changes in esotropia after occlusion therapy in patients with strabismic amblyopia.
  56. (2006). Changing from Snellen to LogMAR: debate or delay?
  57. (2005). Charles de Saint-Yves
  58. (1995). Childhood blindness in India: causes in 1318 blind school students in nine states.
  59. (1995). Children's vision screening: impact on inequalities in central England.
  60. (2005). Clinical profile of amblyopia in Pakistani children age 3 to 14 years.
  61. (1983). Clinical Trials: A practical aproach,
  62. (2003). Cognitive vision, its disorders and differential diagnosis in adults and children: knowing where and what things are.
  63. (2005). Common visual defects and peer victimization in children.
  64. (2008). Comparative efficacy of penalization methods in moderate to mild amblyopia.
  65. (2001). Comparison between anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia using functional magnetic resonance imaging.
  66. (1980). Comparison of Snellen acuity, VER acuity, and Arden grating scores in macular and optic nerve diseases.
  67. (1977). Comparison of the STYCAR and lighthouse acuity tests.
  68. (1982). Competitive neuronal interactions underlying amblyopia.
  69. (2007). Complete pattern of ocular dominance columns in human primary visual cortex.
  70. (1986). Compliance and results of treatment for amblyopia in children more than 8 years old.
  71. (1995). Compliance in amblyopia therapy: objective monitoring of occlusion.
  72. (1992). Compliance in antiamblyopia occlusion therapy.
  73. (1994). Compliance monitoring in amblyopia therapy.
  74. (2005). Concern about the Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group 2-year follow-up study.
  75. (2005). Concordance, adherence and compliance in medicine taking.
  76. (1988). Contrast sensitivity and acuity relationship in strabismic and anisometropic amblyopia.
  77. (1991). Contrast sensitivity in amblyopia.
  78. (1981). Contrast sensitivity in anisometropic amblyopia.
  79. (1983). Contrast thresholds for sine gratings of children with amblyopia.
  80. (2007). Cortical deficits in human amblyopia: their regional distribution and their relationship to the contrast detection deficit.
  81. (2004). Cost effectiveness of treatment for amblyopia: an analysis based on a probabilistic Markov model.
  82. (2000). Costenbader Lecture. Outcome study in amblyopia: treatment and practice pattern variations.
  83. (1998). Critical periods and amblyopia.
  84. (2004). Crowding is unlike ordinary masking: distinguishing feature integration from detection.
  85. (1991). CSF interocular interactions in childhood ambylopia.
  86. (2007). Current concepts in the management of concomitant exodeviations.
  87. (1978). Current trends in amblyopia therapy.
  88. (2005). Deficient motion perception in the fellow eye of amblyopic children.
  89. (2004). Deficits of spatial localization in children with strabismic amblyopia.
  90. (2003). Deficits to global motion processing in human amblyopia.
  91. (2003). Defining and measuring treatment outcome in unilateral amblyopia.
  92. (1999). Description and measurement of handicap caused by vision impairment.
  93. (2007). Detection of abnormal visual cortex in children with amblyopia by voxelbased morphometry.
  94. (2007). Detection of strabismus and amblyopia in 1.5- and 3-year-old children by a preschool vision-screening program in Japan.
  95. (2008). Developing and evaluating complex interventions: the new Medical Research Council guidance.
  96. (1998). Development of a questionnaire for measurement of vision-related quality of life.
  97. (1982). Development of visual line acuity in humans.
  98. (1991). Diagnosis and Management of Ocular Motility Disorders. Visual Function and Binocular Function
  99. (1974). Diagnosis and management of patient noncompliance.
  100. (2003). Differences in the management of amblyopia between European countries.
  101. (2006). Does amblyopia affect educational, health, and social outcomes? Findings from 1958 British birth cohort.
  102. (2006). Does amblyopia matter?
  103. (1990). Effect of levodopa on contrast sensitivity and scotomas in human amblyopia.
  104. (1997). Effectiveness of occlusion therapy in ametropic amblyopia: a pilot study.
  105. (1983). Effects of amblyopia therapy on contrast sensitivity as reflected in the visuogram.
  106. (1964). Effects of Monocular Deprivation in Kittens.
  107. (2000). Efficacy of occlusion for strabismic amblyopia: can an optimal duration be identified?
  108. (1999). Electronic monitoring of treatment compliance in patching for amblyopia.
  109. (2005). Electronic recording of occlusion treatment for amblyopia: potential of the new technology. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol,
  110. (2007). Electronic Recording of Patching for Amblyopia Group (ERPAG):
  111. (2006). Electronic Recording of Patching for Amblyopia Group (ERPAG): Reasons and a Remedy for Non– Compliance?
  112. (2003). Electronically measured compliance with occlusion therapy for amblyopia is related to visual acuity increase. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol,
  113. (1999). Electrophysiological evidence of cortical fusion in children with early-onset esotropia.
  114. (2003). Emmetropisation in normal and strabismic children and the associated changes of anisometropia.
  115. (2005). Epidemiologic study of anisometropia in students of Natal,
  116. (1995). Epidemiology of ametropia of U.S. Army recruits.
  117. (1990). Equivalent intrinsic blur in amblyopia.
  118. (1988). Esotropic children with amblyopia: effects of patching on acuity.
  119. (2007). Extended perceptual learning results in substantial recovery of positional acuity and visual acuity in juvenile amblyopia.
  120. (1981). Extended wear soft contact lenses in the treatment of strabismic amblyopia.
  121. (1995). Factors affecting long term results of successfully treated amblyopia: initial visual acuity and type of amblyopia.
  122. (1994). Factors affecting the outcome of children treated for amblyopia.
  123. (1995). Factors affecting treatment compliance in amblyopia.
  124. (2006). Factors associated with a previous diagnosis of strabismus in a population-based sample of 12-year-old Australian children.
  125. (1980). Factors influencing successful patching.
  126. (2002). Factors influencing visual outcome in anisometropic amblyopes.
  127. (2005). Factors influencing visual rehabilitation after occlusion therapy in unilateral amblyopia in children.
  128. (2006). Feature detection and letter identification.
  129. (1998). Generating the Snellen Chart by computer.
  130. (2007). Genetic basis of congenital strabismus.
  131. (1993). Glasgow Acuity Cards: a new test for the measurement of letter acuity in children.
  132. (1991). Good days, bad days: the self in chronic illness and time,
  133. (1988). Grating and recognition acuities of young amblyopes.
  134. (2005). Guidelines for prescribing optical correction in children.
  135. (2005). Haphazard neural connections underlie the visual deficits of cats with strabismic or deprivation amblyopia.
  136. (2002). How does visual impairment affect performance on tasks of everyday life? The SEE Project. Salisbury Eye Evaluation.
  137. (2008). Hypermetropia in childhood: a review of research relating to clinical management.
  138. (1989). Hysterical symptoms in ophthalmology.
  139. (1985). Identifying amblyopia using associated conditions, acuity, and nonacuity features.
  140. (2003). Impact of patching and atropine treatment on the child and family in the amblyopia treatment study.
  141. (1999). Improvement of visual function in an adult amblyope.
  142. (2000). Improving the reliability of visual acuity measures in young children.
  143. (1981). Incidence of loss of vision in the healthy eye in amblyopia.
  144. (1983). Indication for the use of contact lenses in the ambyopic and strabismic infant.
  145. (1997). Infant emmetropization: longitudinal changes in refraction components from nine to twenty months of age.
  146. (1996). Infantile cataracts.
  147. (2003). Information sources and their use by parents of children with ophthalmic disorders.
  148. (1979). Inheritance in the etiology of convergent squint.
  149. (1999). Inheritance of strabismus and the gain of using heredity to determine populations at risk of developing strabismus.
  150. (2001). Intensive occlusion therapy for amblyopia.
  151. (2006). Intermediate spatial frequency letter contrast sensitivity: its relation to visual resolution before and during amblyopia treatment.
  152. (2008). Interventions for strabismic amblyopia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev,
  153. (1979). Is amblyopia a peripheral defect?
  154. (1994). Is the spatial deficit in strabismic amblyopia due to loss of cells or an uncalibrated disarray of cells?
  155. (1971). Laser interferometric acuity in amblyopia.
  156. (1992). Levodopa and childhood amblyopia.
  157. (1998). Levodopa-carbidopa and childhood retinal disease.
  158. (2002). Long term visual outcome in amblyopia treatment.
  159. (2001). Long-term follow-up of occlusion therapy in amblyopia.
  160. (1998). Longterm effect of hypermetropic anisometropia on the visual acuity of treated amblyopic eyes.
  161. (2002). Longterm follow-up of L-dopa treatment in children with amblyopia.
  162. (2006). Macular pigmentary changes as a sequelae of retinal hemorrhages in premature infants with retinopathy of prematurity.
  163. (1977). Mechanisms of amblyopia.
  164. (2007). Modeling dose-response in amblyopia: toward a child-specific treatment plan.
  165. (1976). Modification of visual function by early visual experience.
  166. (2005). Monocular and binocular reading performance in children with microstrabismic amblyopia.
  167. (1989). Monocular geometry is selectively distorted in the central visual field of strabismic amblyopes.
  168. (1981). Monocular spatial distortion in strabismic amblyopia.
  169. (2004). Mothering children who have disabilities: a Bourdieusian interpretation of maternal practices.
  170. (1979). Myelinated retinal nerve fibers associated with ipsilateral myopia, amblyopia, and strabismus.
  171. (1992). National epidemiological survey of blindness and low vision in China.
  172. (1996). Natural history of infantile anisometropia.
  173. (1976). New design principles for visual acuity letter charts.
  174. (1996). New standardized visual acuity charts in Hindi and Gujarati.
  175. (1982). New visual acuity charts for clinical research.
  176. (2002). Non-concordance in amblyopia treatment: the effective use of 'smileys'.
  177. (1996). Noncompliance and treatment failure in children with asthma.
  178. (1998). Nutritional amblyopia.
  179. (2004). Objective survey of the prescription of occlusion therapy for amblyopia. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol,
  180. (2007). Objectively monitored patching regimens for treatment of amblyopia: randomised trial.
  181. (1998). Occlusion and levodopa-carbidopa treatment for childhood amblyopia.
  182. (1992). Occlusion for amblyopia: a comprehensive survey of outcome.
  183. (2007). Occlusion therapy for amblyopia.
  184. (1994). Occlusion therapy for strabismic amblyopia.
  185. (2002). Occlusion therapy for the treatment of amblyopia: letting the parents decide.
  186. (1990). Occlusion therapy in unilateral aphakia: The agony and the ecstacy.
  187. (2006). Occlusion treatment for amblyopia: assessing the performance of the electronic occlusion dose monitor.
  188. (2006). Ocular dominance columns in strabismus.
  189. (1996). Ocular findings in Down's syndrome.
  190. (2005). On the division of cortical cells into simple and complex types: a comparative viewpoint.
  191. (1980). Ophthalmic screening of 38,000 children,
  192. (1988). Ophthalmological lore in the Corpus Hippocraticum.
  193. (1983). Optical characteristics of Transpaseal as a partial occluder.
  194. (2005). Oral Presentation. Can Patching be Improved in Amblyopia Treatment?. Awarded Vernon’s Trophy Research Award for “Best Ophthalmologic Clinical Research Presentation”, 9th Nottingham Eye Symposium and Research Meeting,
  195. (1998). Outcome criteria in strabismus surgery.
  196. (1999). Outcome of occlusion treatment for amblyopia.
  197. (2008). Outcomes of Amblyopia Treatment VAas Visual Acuity of amblyopic eye at the start VAae Visual Acuity amblyopic eye at the end VAde Visual Acuity: dominant eye at end VAfe. Visual Acuity of fellow eye at the end April
  198. (2002). Paediatric community vision screening with combined optometric and orthoptic care: a 64-month review.
  199. (2000). Parental non-concordance with occlusion therapy.
  200. (2007). Patching treatment and bullying.
  201. (2004). Pediatric cataract surgery in Nepal.
  202. (1994). Pediatric Ophthalmology. 2nd ed. Cambridge,
  203. (1994). Pointing errors in strabismics: complex patterns of distorted visuomotor coordination.
  204. (2001). Poor correlation between "fix-follow-maintain" monocular/binocular fixation pattern evaluation and presence of functional amblyopia.
  205. (1997). Poverty predicts amblyopia treatment failure.
  206. (2006). Predictors and a remedy for noncompliance with amblyopia therapy in children measured with the occlusion dose monitor.
  207. (1982). Preferential looking vision testing: application to evaluation of high-risk, prematurely born infants and children.
  208. (1982). Preferential looking' for monocular and binocular acuity testing of infants.
  209. (2006). Preliminary results from the use of the novel Interactive binocular treatment (I-BiT) system, in the treatment of strabismic and anisometropic amblyopia.
  210. (1983). Preschool vision screening for amblyopia and strabismus. Programs, methods, guidelines,
  211. (2002). Preschool vision screening in a Swedish city region: results after alteration of criteria for referral to eye clinics.
  212. (1992). Preschool vision screening in pediatric practice: a study from the Pediatric Research in Office Settings (PROS) Network. American Academy of Pediatrics.
  213. (1996). Preschool vision screening: rationale, methodology and outcome.
  214. (1997). Preschool vision screening.
  215. (2005). Prevalence and causes of amblyopia in a population-based study of young adult men in Singapore.
  216. (1998). Prevalence and causes of amblyopia in an adult population.
  217. (2007). Prevalence and causes of visual impairment and blindness in Sistan-vaBaluchestan Province, Iran: Zahedan Eye Study.
  218. (2006). Prevalence and causes of visual impairment in craniosynostotic syndromes.
  219. (2006). Prevalence and course of strabismus in the first year of life for infants with prethreshold retinopathy of prematurity: findings from the Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity study.
  220. (2005). Prevalence and outcomes of childhood visual disorders.
  221. (2000). Prevalence of amblyopia and associated refractive errors in an adult population in Victoria,
  222. (2000). Prevalence of eye diseases in primary school children in a rural area of Tanzania.
  223. (1989). Prognosis for occlusive therapy for strabismic and anisometropic amblyopia and for different initial depths of amblyopia.
  224. (1984). Prognosis for vision in amblyopia after the loss of the good eye.
  225. (1976). Properties of LGN cells in kittens reared with convergent squint: a neurophysiological demonstration of amblyopia.
  226. (2002). Psychosocial and clinical determinants of compliance with occlusion therapy for amblyopic children.
  227. (2003). Ptosis: causes, presentation, and management.
  228. (2003). Randomised controlled trial of treatment of unilateral visual impairment detected at preschool vision screening.
  229. (2005). Randomized trial of treatment of amblyopia in children aged 7 to 17 years.
  230. (1959). Receptive fields of single neurones in the cat's striate cortex.
  231. (2004). Recovery of cortical binocularity and orientation selectivity after the critical period for ocular dominance plasticity.
  232. (2007). Reduction of deviation angle during occlusion therapy: in partially accommodative esotropia with moderate amblyopia.
  233. (2004). Refractive adaptation in amblyopia: quantification of effect and implications for practice.
  234. (2007). Refractive error and visual impairment in school children in rural southern China.
  235. (2005). Refractive error and visual impairment in school-age children in Gombak District,
  236. (2002). Refractive error in children in a rural population in India.
  237. (2002). Refractive error in children in an urban population in New Delhi.
  238. (2000). Refractive Error Study in Children: results from Shunyi District,
  239. (2006). Relationship between anisometropia, patient age, and the development of amblyopia.
  240. (2004). Reliability of a standardized reading chart system: variance component analysis, test-retest and inter-chart reliability. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol,
  241. (1977). Reliability of visual acuity measures of amblyopic eyes.
  242. (2002). Remediation of refractive amblyopia by optical correction alone.
  243. (1982). Residual amblyopia in recruits to the British Army.
  244. (1990). Richardson Cross lecture
  245. (2003). Risk factors for abnormal binocular vision after successful alignment of accommodative esotropia.
  246. (2004). Risk factors for treatment failure of anisometropic amblyopia.
  247. (2002). Risk, causes, and outcomes of visual impairment after loss of vision in the non-amblyopic eye: a population-based study.
  248. (1983). Rotating grating treatment of amblyopia with and without eccentric fixation.
  249. (2001). Screening for amblyopia in preschool children: results of a population-based, randomised controlled trial. ALSPAC Study Team. Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood.
  250. (1997). Screening for amblyopia: a comparison of paediatric letter tests.
  251. (2003). Screening for visual impairment in older people: validation of the Cardiff Acuity Test.
  252. (1971). Screening of pre-school children for ocular anomalies. II. Amblyopia. Prevalence and therapeutic results at different ages.
  253. (2007). Second-order optic flow deficits in amblyopia.
  254. (2004). Self-organization model of cytochrome oxidase blobs and ocular dominance columns in the primary visual cortex.
  255. (2003). Severe visual impairment and blindness in children in the UK.
  256. (1963). Shape and arrangement of columns in cat's striate cortex.
  257. (1994). Social deprivation and age at presentation in amblyopia.
  258. (1987). Spatial contrast sensitivity and the diagnosis of amblyopia.
  259. (2007). Stability of visual acuity improvement following discontinuation of amblyopia treatment in children aged 7 to 12 years.
  260. (1979). Strabismic amblyopia in infants.
  261. (1959). Strabismus, anisometropia, and amblyopia.
  262. (1989). Study of chart designs and optotypes for preschool vision screening--I. Comparability of chart designs.
  263. (2000). Successful amblyopia therapy initiated after age 7 years: compliance cures.
  264. (2006). Successful treatment of anisometropic amblyopia with spectacles alone.
  265. (1988). Teller acuity cards versus clinical judgment in the diagnosis of amblyopia with strabismus.
  266. (1976). Testing of visual acuity in young children: an evaluation of some commonly used methods.
  267. (1985). The acuity card procedure: a rapid test of infant acuity.
  268. (1998). The association between cigarette smoking and ocular diseases.
  269. (1994). The Cardiff acuity test used for measuring visual acuity development in toddlers.
  270. (1992). The Cardiff Test: a new visual acuity test for toddlers and children with intellectual impairment. A preliminary report.
  271. (2002). The clinical profile of moderate amblyopia in children younger than 7 years.
  272. (2001). The cortical deficit in humans with strabismic amblyopia.
  273. (2006). The cost utility of strabismus surgery in adults.
  274. (1999). The detection, prevention, and rehabilitation of amblyopia.
  275. (2005). The effect of amblyopia therapy on ocular alignment.
  276. (2000). The effectiveness of preschool vision screening by health visitors.
  277. (2005). The effects of L-dopa on the functional magnetic resonance imaging response of patients with amblyopia: a pilot study.
  278. (1993). The efficacy of optical and pharmacological penalization.
  279. (2004). The emotional impact of amblyopia treatment in preschool children: randomized controlled trial.
  280. (2002). The frequency of amblyopia among visually impaired persons.
  281. (2002). The History of Strabismology: Hirshberg History of Ophthalmology: The Monographs,
  282. (2005). The history of the treatment of amblyopia.
  283. (1991). The incidence and prevalence of amblyopia detected in childhood.
  284. (2003). The incidence of strabismus and refractive error in patients with blepharophimosis, ptosis and epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES).
  285. (2007). The logMAR Kay picture test and the logMAR acuity test: a comparative study.
  286. (2002). The minimum occlusion trial for the treatment of amblyopia.
  287. (1983). The onset of binocular function in human infants.
  288. (1994). The presentation of children with amblyopia.
  289. (2006). The prevalence of specific reading disability in an amblyopic population. A preliminary report.
  290. (1977). The problem of screening children for visual defects.
  291. (1999). The psychosocial effects of amblyopia study.
  292. (2005). The relationship between anisometropia, patient age, and the development of amblyopia.
  293. (2003). The relationship between stereopsis and visual acuity after occlusion therapy for amblyopia.
  294. (1990). The reliability of the PelliRobson contrast sensitivity chart.
  295. (1979). The sensitive period.
  296. (2004). The Seoul Metropolitan Preschool Vision Screening Programme: results from South Korea.
  297. (1999). The therapy of amblyopia: an analysis comparing the results of amblyopia therapy utilizing two pooled data sets.
  298. (2000). The therapy of amblyopia: an analysis comparing the results of amblyopia therapy utilizing two pooled data sets. Trans Am ophthalmol soc 1999;97:373-390.
  299. (1977). The threshold contrast sensitivity function in strabismic amblyopia: evidence for a two type classification.
  300. (2006). The timing of patching treatment and a child's wellbeing.
  301. (2006). The treatment of amblyopia.
  302. (1982). The value of the preschool examination in screening for health problems.
  303. (2006). The VF-14 and psychological impact of amblyopia and strabismus.
  304. (2004). Treatment dose-response in amblyopia therapy: the Monitored Occlusion Treatment of Amblyopia Study (MOTAS).
  305. (1996). Treatment for amblyopia: results using occlusive contact lens.
  306. (2006). Treatment of anisometropic amblyopia in children with refractive correction.
  307. (2007). Treatment of strabismic amblyopia with refractive correction.
  308. (2005). Treatment of unilateral amblyopia: factors influencing visual outcome.
  309. (1996). Two infant vision screening programmes: prediction and prevention of strabismus and amblyopia from photo- and videorefractive screening.
  310. (2004). Understanding the neural basis of amblyopia.
  311. (2003). Unilateral visual impairment and health related quality of life: the Blue Mountains Eye Study.
  312. (2006). Unilateral visual impairment and neurodevelopmental performance in preschool children.
  313. (1992). Use of a transparent film dressing to enhance compliance with occlusion therapy for amblyopia.
  314. (1988). Validity and reliability of visual acuity measurements.
  315. (1986). Vanishing optotypes. New type of acuity test letters.
  316. (1991). Vision and perception.
  317. (1983). Vision function recovery during orthoptic therapy in an exotropic amblyope with high unilateral myopia.
  318. (1989). Vision screening at 8 and 18 months.
  319. (1973). Vision screening of four-year-old children.
  320. (1998). Vision testing in schools: an evaluation of personnel, tests, and premises.
  321. (2001). Visual acuities after levodopa administration in amblyopia.
  322. (1995). Visual acuities and scotomas after 3 weeks' levodopa administration in adult amblyopia.
  323. (1978). Visual acuity and the developing visual system.
  324. (1985). Visual acuity in a national sample of 10 year old children.
  325. (1996). Visual acuity in preschool children: the Chapel Hill-Durham Day-Care Vision Study.
  326. (1983). Visual acuity norms in young children.
  327. (1989). Visual acuity outcome in isometropic hyperopia.
  328. (1988). Visual acuity testing of young children with the Cambridge Crowding Cards at 3 and 6 m.
  329. (2003). Visual acuity, amblyopia, and ocular pathology in 12- to 13-year-old children in Northern Mexico.
  330. (2001). Visual acuity, residual amblyopia and ocular pathology in a screened population of 12-13-year-old children in Sweden.
  331. (1991). Visual assessment of infants: vernier targets for the Catford drum.
  332. (1982). Visual disorders associated with cerebral palsy.
  333. (1998). Visual function following congenital cataract surgery.
  334. (2003). Visual impairment in children born prematurely from
  335. (1997). Visual impairment in school children in southern India.
  336. (2001). Visual screening of Swedish children: an ophthalmological evaluation.
  337. (2002). Why are we so bad at treating amblyopia?
  338. (1989). Y cells in the cat retina are more tolerant than X cells to brief elevation of IOP.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.