Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

The effect of GPCR crosstalk on intracellular Ca2+ responses and downstream signalling

By Caroline Jane Hall


This thesis studies crosstalk between G q/11-coupled muscarinic M3 receptors and G s-coupled\ud 2-adrenoceptors leading to a synergistic increase in intracellular Ca2+. The aims were to\ud generally understand the integration of signalling and specifically the potential interactions\ud between these receptors in physiological and pathological settings, for example in asthma and\ud chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study demonstrated that only in the\ud presence of a muscarinic agonist did stimulation of 2-adrenoceptors elicit a Ca2+ response.\ud Both full and partial agonists of the muscarinic M3 receptor were used to examine differences\ud in the pattern of Ca2+ signalling both mediated by the muscarinic M3 receptor and the 2-\ud adrenoceptor. Crosstalk was dependent on the concentration of the muscarinic agonist, being\ud more robust and consistent in the presence of a partial rather than a full muscarinic agonist.\ud Under crosstalk conditions, single cell imaging highlighted pronounced alterations in the\ud pattern of Ca2+ signalling, such as oscillatory frequency. This Ca2+ signal was independent of\ud extracellular Ca2+ but was dependent on thapsigargin-sensitive stores. Investigation of the\ud potential mechanism indicated that exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP (Epac) and\ud protein kinase A (PKA) were not involved. An alternative mechanism was suggested, with\ud localised increases in cAMP directly sensitising Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptors. Downstream signalling\ud events regulated by Ca2+, including extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and nuclear\ud factor-kappaB (NF-kB) were examined to determine if their regulation altered in the presence\ud of crosstalk. Although crosstalk experiments were unsuccessful in rat tracheal smooth muscle\ud cells, due to loss of muscarinic M3 receptor expression, it is still possible that this crosstalk\ud could alter the regulation of cell function and be an important factor in treating diseases such as\ud asthma and COPD

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 2011
OAI identifier:

Suggested articles


  1. (1999). [Ca2+]i oscillation frequency regulates agonist-stimulated NF-kappaB transcriptional activity.
  2. (2002). 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) is a reliable blocker of store-operated Ca2+ entry but an inconsistent inhibitor of InsP3-induced Ca2+ release.
  3. (2006). 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate as a prototype drug for a group of structurally related calcium channel blockers in human platelets.
  4. (1997). 2APB, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, a membrane-penetrable modulator of Ins(1,4,5)P3-induced Ca2+ release.
  5. (1998). A characterization of muscarinic receptor-mediated intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in cultured rat hippocampal neurones.
  6. (1998). A family of cAMPbinding proteins that directly activate Rap1.
  7. (2004). A network of immediate early gene products propagates subtle differences in mitogen-activated protein kinase signal amplitude and duration.
  8. (1985). A new generation of Ca2+ indicators with greatly improved fluorescence properties.
  9. (1996). A peptide derived from a β2-adrenergic receptor transmembrane domain inhibits both receptor dimerization and activation.
  10. (1976). A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding.
  11. (2008). A specific cholesterol binding site is established by the 2.8 A structure of the human β2-adrenergic receptor.
  12. (1998). A transmembrane domain-derived peptide inhibits D1 dopamine receptor function without affecting receptor oligomerization.
  13. (1997). A β-arrestin/green fluorescent protein biosensor for detecting G protein-coupled receptor activation.
  14. (2006). activation and proliferation of human airway smooth muscle.
  15. (2004). Activation mechanism of the heterodimeric GABA(B) receptor.
  16. (2005). Activation of a novel PKC isoform synergistically enhances D2L dopamine receptor-mediated sensitization of adenylate cyclase type 6.
  17. (2008). Activation of G proteincoupled receptors: beyond two-state models and tertiary conformational changes.
  18. (1999). Activation of NF-kappaB in normal rat kidney epithelial (NRK52E) cells is mediated via a redoxinsensitive, calcium-dependent pathway.
  19. (1993). Activation of phospholipase C-β 2 mutants by G protein αq and βγ subunits.
  20. (2001). Activation of the β2-adrenergic receptor involves disruption of an ionic lock between the cytoplasmic ends of transmembrane segments 3 and 6.
  21. (1997). Activation of type II adenylate cyclase by D2 and D4 but not D3 dopamine receptors.
  22. (1994). Adrenergic receptor-mediated regulation of cultured rabbit airway smooth muscle cell proliferation.
  23. (2009). Agonist efficacy and receptor desensitization: from partial truths to a fuller picture.
  24. (2004). Agonist induction, conformational selection, and mutant receptors.
  25. (2003). Agonist- and protein kinase C-induced phosphorylation have similar functional consequences for gastrin-releasing peptide receptor signaling via Gq.
  26. (2001). Agonist-induced conformational changes in the G-protein-coupling domain of the beta 2 adrenergic receptor.
  27. (1999). Agonist-induced desensitization and phosphorylation of m1-muscarinic receptors.
  28. (2008). Agonist-selective mechanisms of GPCR desensitization.
  29. (2004). AKAPs (A-kinase anchoring proteins) and molecules that compose their G-protein-coupled receptor signalling complexes.
  30. (2006). AKAPs competing peptide HT31 disrupts the inhibitory effect of PKA on RhoA activity.
  31. (2007). Allosteric modulators of GABA(B) receptors: mechanism of action and therapeutic perspective.
  32. (1994). An arginine residue conserved in most G protein-coupled receptors is essential for the function of the M1 muscarinic receptor.
  33. (1998). Analysis of the Gs/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in mutant S49 cells.
  34. (2003). Angiotensin II enhances adenylyl cyclase signaling via Ca2+/calmodulin. Gq-Gs cross-talk regulates collagen production in cardiac fibroblasts.
  35. (2003). Antithetic regulation by β-adrenergic receptors of Gq receptor signaling via phospholipase C underlies the airway beta-agonist paradox.
  36. (2001). AP-1 in cell proliferation and survival.
  37. (2002). Are we β-ARKing up the wrong tree? Casein kinase 1 α provides an additional pathway for GPCR phosphorylation.
  38. (2004). Are β2-adrenoceptor polymorphisms important in asthma--an unravelling story.
  39. (2010). Arrestin orchestrates crosstalk between G protein-coupled receptors to modulate the spatiotemporal activation of ERK MAPK.
  40. (2005). Arrestin times for compartmentalised cAMP signalling and phosphodiesterase-4 enzymes.
  41. (1998). Arrestin-independent internalization of the M1, M3, and M4 subtypes of muscarinic cholinergic receptors.
  42. (2002). Arresting developments in heptahelical receptor signaling and regulation.
  43. (2000). Assembly of an A kinase-anchoring protein-β2-adrenergic receptor complex facilitates receptor phosphorylation and signaling.
  44. (1994). Association of the regulatory β-adrenergic receptor kinase with rat liver microsomal membranes.
  45. (1999). Association of β-arrestin with G protein-coupled receptors during clathrin-mediated endocytosis dictates the profile of receptor resensitization.
  46. (2000). Association of β2-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms with severe asthma.
  47. (2008). Association of β2-adrenoreceptor genotypes with bronchodilatory effect of tiotropium in COPD.
  48. (1998). Asthma control during long-term treatment with regular inhaled salbutamol and salmeterol.
  49. (2000). Asthma exacerbations during long term β-agonist use: influence of beta(2) adrenoceptor polymorphism.
  50. (2000). Asthma. From bronchoconstriction to airways inflammation and remodeling.
  51. (1992). ATP and its metabolite adenosine act synergistically to mobilize intracellular calcium via the formation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in a smooth muscle cell line.
  52. (2007). Benefits of long-acting β2-agonists.
  53. (2003). beta-Arrestin-mediated PDE4 cAMP phosphodiesterase recruitment regulates β-adrenoceptor switching from Gs to Gi.
  54. (2006). Beyond the dogma: novel β2-adrenoceptor signalling in the airways.
  55. (2003). Biochemical and pharmacological control of the multiplicity of coupling at G-protein-coupled receptors.
  56. (2006). Biosensors to Measure Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Concentration in Living Cells with Spatiotemporal Resolution.
  57. (1992). Bradykinin and asthma.
  58. (1991). c-fos and c-jun are induced by muscarinic receptor activation of protein kinase C but are differentially regulated by intracellular calcium.
  59. (2000). Ca2+ oscillation and c-fos gene expression induced via muscarinic acetylcholine receptor in human T- and B-cell lines.
  60. (2002). Ca2+ signalling by recombinant human CXCR2 chemokine receptors is potentiated by P2Y nucleotide receptors in HEK cells.
  61. (2007). Ca2+/calmodulin kinase II-dependent phosphorylation of ryanodine receptors suppresses Ca2+ sparks and Ca2+ waves in cardiac myocytes.
  62. (2002). Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM-kinase) inhibitor KN-62 suppresses the activity of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), c-myc activation and human keratinocyte proliferation.
  63. (2003). Calcineurin activates NF-kappaB in skeletal muscle C2C12 cells.
  64. (2000). Calcium signaling and c-Fos gene expression via M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in human T- and B-cells.
  65. (2001). Calcium transients in 1B5 myotubes lacking ryanodine receptors are related to inositol trisphosphate receptors.
  66. (2010). Calcium-dependent Conformational Changes in Inositol Trisphosphate Receptors.
  67. (2009). Calcium-induced calcium release in skeletal muscle.
  68. (2003). Calcium-induced calcium release.
  69. (2001). cAMP signaling selectively influences Ras effectors pathways.
  70. (2007). Camp-dependent phosphorylation of the cardiac L-type Ca channel: A missing link?
  71. (2001). cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factor II (Epac2) mediates Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release in INS-1 pancreatic beta-cells.
  72. (1999). Capacitative calcium entry channels.
  73. (1999). Carbachol activates IkappaB kinase in isolated canine gastric parietal cells.
  74. (2009). Carbachol induces Ca2+-dependent contraction via muscarinic M2 and M3 receptors in rat intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts.
  75. (1996). Carboxyl-terminal fragments of phospholipase C-beta1 with intrinsic Gq GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity.
  76. (2005). Cardiacspecific overexpression of AT1 receptor mutant lacking Gαq/Gαi coupling causes hypertrophy and bradycardia in transgenic mice.
  77. (1993). Cellular localization of messenger RNA for β-1 and β-2 adrenergic receptors in rat brain: an in situ hybridization study.
  78. (1990). Changes in expression and organization of smooth-muscle-specific alpha-actin during fibronectin-mediated modulation of arterial smooth muscle cell phenotype.
  79. (2001). Characteristics of a store-operated calciumpermeable channel: sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium pump function controls channel gating.
  80. (2004). Characterization of agonist stimulation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and G protein-coupled receptor kinase phosphorylation of the β2-adrenergic receptor using phosphoserine-specific antibodies.
  81. (2002). Characterization of contractile function and expression of muscarinic receptors, G proteins and adenylate cyclase in cultured tracheal smooth muscle of Swine.
  82. (1993). Characterization of functional antagonism of adenosine and isoproterenol in guinea-pig atrial myocytes.
  83. (1990). Characterization of the binding domain of the beta-adrenergic receptor with the fluorescent antagonist carazolol. Evidence for a buried ligand binding site.
  84. (1994). Characterization of the human gene (PTGS2) encoding prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2.
  85. (2000). Cholesterol oxidation switches the internalization pathway of endothelin receptor type A from caveolae to clathrin-coated pits in Chinese hamster ovary cells.
  86. (2004). Clathrin-mediated endocytosis of M3 muscarinic receptors. Roles for Gbetagamma and tubulin.
  87. (2003). Clinical and biological heterogeneity in children with moderate asthma.
  88. (1987). Cloning of the cDNA for the human β1-adrenergic receptor.
  89. (1993). Cloning, sequencing, purification, and Gq-dependent activation of phospholipase C-beta 3.
  90. (1993). Coexpression of four muscarinic receptor genes by the intrinsic neurons of the rat and guineapig heart.
  91. (2010). Comparative transfection of DNA into primary and transformed mammalian cells from different lineages.
  92. (1993). Comparison of the effects of selective inhibitors of phosphodiesterase types III and IV in airway smooth muscle with differing beta-adrenoceptor subtypes.
  93. (1988). Competitive, reversible, and potent antagonism of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-activated calcium release by heparin.
  94. (2000). Complex actions of protein kinase A inhibitors on mitogenesis of bovine coronary artery smooth muscle cells.
  95. (1998). Contractile and phosphatidylinositol responses of rat trachea to anticholinesterase drugs.
  96. (2005). Control of MAP kinase signaling to the nucleus.
  97. (1999). Coordination of agonistinduced Ca2+-signalling patterns by NAADP in pancreatic acinar cells.
  98. (2003). Corticosteroid-insensitive asthma: molecular mechanisms.
  99. (2006). Coupling of agonist binding to effector domain activation in metabotropic glutamate-like receptors.
  100. (2002). Coupling of M2 muscarinic receptors to Src activation in cultured canine colonic smooth muscle cells.
  101. (1991). Coupling of transfected muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes to phospholipase D.
  102. (2009). Crosstalk between GABAB and mGlu1a receptors reveals new insight into GPCR signal integration.
  103. (2006). Crosstalk between Gs- and Gq-coupled pathways in regulation of interleukin-4 by A2B adenosine receptors in human mast cells.
  104. (1999). Crosstalk between Gαi- and Gαq-coupled receptors is mediated by Gbetagamma exchange.
  105. (2008). Crosstalk via the NF-kappaB signaling system.
  106. (2000). Crystal structure of rhodopsin: A G proteincoupled receptor.
  107. (2007). Crystal structure of the human β2-adrenergic G-protein-coupled receptor.
  108. (1998). Current therapeutic uses and potential of beta-adrenoceptor agonists and antagonists.
  109. (2002). Cyclic AMP raises intracellular Ca2+ in human megakaryocytes independent of protein kinase A. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc
  110. (2006). Cyclic AMP-dependent and Epacmediated activation of R-Ras by G protein-coupled receptors leads to phospholipase D stimulation.
  111. (2001). Cyclic AMP-mediated inhibition of cell growth requires the small G protein Rap1.
  112. (1987). Delineation of the intronless nature of the genes for the human and hamster β2-adrenergic receptor and their putative promoter regions.
  113. (1999). Delta-opioid-induced liberation of Gβγ mobilizes Ca2+ stores in NG108-15 cells.
  114. (2004). Desensitization of G protein-coupled receptors and neuronal functions.
  115. (2004). Detecting cAMP-induced Epac activation by fluorescence resonance energy transfer: Epac as a novel cAMP indicator.
  116. (2000). Differential affinities of visual arrestin, β arrestin1, and β arrestin2 for G protein-coupled receptors delineate two major classes of receptors.
  117. (2001). Differential desensitization of Ca2+ mobilization and vasoconstriction by ETA receptors in the gerbil spiral modiolar artery.
  118. (1998). Differential effects of protein kinase A on Ras effector pathways.
  119. (2004). Differential kinetic and spatial patterns of β-arrestin and G protein-mediated ERK activation by the angiotensin II receptor.
  120. (1998). Distinct PKC isoforms mediate the activation of cPLA2 and adenylyl cyclase by phorbol ester in RAW264.7 macrophages.
  121. (1987). Distinct primary structures, ligandbinding properties and tissue-specific expression of four human muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.
  122. (1999). Divergent differentiation paths in airway smooth muscle culture: induction of functionally contractile myocytes.
  123. (1991). Drug action of thapsigargin on the Ca2+ pump protein of sarcoplasmic reticulum.
  124. (1995). Dual effect of betaadrenergic receptors on mitogen-activated protein kinase. Evidence for a βα-dependent activation and a Gαs-cAMP-mediated inhibition.
  125. (1999). Dynamic complexes of beta2-adrenergic receptors with protein kinases and phosphatases and the role of gravin.
  126. (1999). Effects of guanine, inosine, and xanthine nucleotides on β2-adrenergic receptor/Gs interactions: evidence for multiple receptor conformations.
  127. (1990). Effects of MeCh, thapsigargin, and La3+ on plasmalemmal and intracellular Ca2+ transport in lacrimal acinar cells.
  128. (1997). Effects of purine nucleotides and nucleoside on cytosolic calcium levels in rat tracheal smooth muscle cells.
  129. (2002). Effects of yakuchinone A and yakuchinone B on the phorbol ester-induced expression of COX-2 and iNOS and activation of NF-kappaB in mouse skin.
  130. (2004). Efficient transfection of non-proliferating human airway epithelial cells with a synthetic vector system.
  131. (1995). Embryonic lethality and liver degeneration in mice lacking the RelA component of NFkappa B.
  132. (1997). Endocytosis and recycling of G proteincoupled receptors.
  133. (1999). Endocytosis and recycling of muscarinic receptors.
  134. (2002). Endogenous G proteincoupled receptor kinase 6 Regulates M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor phosphorylation and desensitization in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.
  135. (1993). Enkephalin activates the phospholipase C/Ca2+ system through cross-talk between opioid receptors and P2-purinergic or bradykinin receptors in NG 108-15 cells. A permissive role for pertussis toxin-sensitive G-proteins.
  136. (2003). Epac-selective cAMP analog 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP as a stimulus for Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release and exocytosis in pancreatic beta-cells.
  137. (2003). Epac: a new cAMP target and new avenues in cAMP research.
  138. (2001). Epileptogenesis induces long-term alterations in intracellular calcium release and sequestration mechanisms in the hippocampal neuronal culture model of epilepsy.
  139. (2004). ERK and p38 MAPK-activated protein kinases: a family of protein kinases with diverse biological functions.
  140. (2001). ERK7 is an autoactivated member of the MAPK family.
  141. (1993). Estimation of competitive antagonist affinity from functional inhibition curves using the Gaddum, Schild and Cheng-Prusoff Equations.
  142. (1995). Evidence for the presence of β3-adrenergic receptor mRNA in the human brain.
  143. Evidence that Gly16 correlates with the nocturnal phenotype.
  144. (1980). Evidence that ICI 118, 551 is a potent, highly β2-selective adrenoceptor antagonist and can be used to characterize β-adrenoceptor populations in tissues.
  145. (2003). Evolution, structure, and activation mechanism of family 3/C G-protein-coupled receptors.
  146. (2007). Exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac) mediates cAMP activation of p38 MAPK and modulation of Ca2+-dependent K+ channels in cerebellar neurons.
  147. (2002). Existence of functional β1- and β2-adrenergic receptors on microglia.
  148. (2001). Expression of multiple subtypes of muscarinic receptors and cellular distribution in the human heart.
  149. (2004). Factors controlling airway smooth muscle proliferation in asthma.
  150. (2003). Fidelity and spatio-temporal control in MAP kinase (ERKs) signalling.
  151. (1994). Fingerprinting G-protein-coupled receptors.
  152. (2009). Full and partial agonists of muscarinic M3 receptors reveal single and oscillatory Ca2+ responses by β2-adrenoceptors.
  153. (1997). Functional and structural complexity of signal transduction via G-protein-coupled receptors.
  154. (1998). Functional rescue of a constitutively desensitized β2AR through receptor dimerization.
  155. (1993). Functional role of proline and tryptophan residues highly conserved among G protein-coupled receptors studied by mutational analysis of the m3 muscarinic receptor.
  156. (2009). Functional selectivity of GPCR ligand stereoisomers: new pharmacological opportunities.
  157. (1996). Functional β3-adrenoceptor in the human heart.
  158. (2007). G protein regulation of MAPK networks.
  159. (1996). G protein subunits and the stimulation of phospholipase C by Gs-and Gi-coupled receptors: Lack of receptor selectivity of Gα16 and evidence for a synergic interaction between Gβγ and the α subunit of a receptor activated G protein.
  160. (2009). G protein-coupled receptor hetero-dimerization: contribution to pharmacology and function.
  161. (2004). G Protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 regulator of G protein signaling homology domain binds to both metabotropic glutamate receptor 1a and Gαq to attenuate signaling.
  162. (1998). G protein-coupled receptor kinases.
  163. (2005). G protein-coupled receptors: a count of 1001 conformations.
  164. (1998). G protein-coupled receptors. II. Mechanism of agonist activation.
  165. (2007). G protein-independent neuromodulatory action of adenosine on metabotropic glutamate signalling in mouse cerebellar Purkinje cells.
  166. (2007). G-protein-coupled receptor expression, function, and signaling in macrophages.
  167. (2007). G-protein-coupled receptor signalling through protein networks.
  168. (2006). G-protein-coupled receptors: past, present and future.
  169. (2000). G-protein-independent signaling by G-protein-coupled receptors.
  170. (1994). GCRDb: a G-protein-coupled receptor database.
  171. (2001). Generation of slow waves in the antral region of guinea-pig stomach--a stochastic process.
  172. (1995). Genetic polymorphisms of the β2-adrenergic receptor in nocturnal and nonnocturnal asthma.
  173. (2001). Genetic variation of the β2-adrenoceptor: its functional and clinical importance in bronchial asthma.
  174. (1996). Gi-mediated stimulation of type II adenylyl cyclase is augmented by Gq-coupled receptor activation and phorbol ester treatment.
  175. (1992). Glucagon-like peptide-1, a new hormone of the entero-insular axis.
  176. (1997). Glucocorticoid treatment decreases muscarinic receptor expression in canine airway smooth muscle.
  177. (1996). Glutamate residues in the second extracellular loop of the human A2a adenosine receptor are required for ligand recognition.
  178. (1983). Glycoprotein properties of the solubilized atrial muscarinic acetylcholine receptor.
  179. (2006). Good cop, bad cop: the different faces of NFkappaB.
  180. (2008). GPCRTree: online hierarchical classification of GPCR function.
  181. (2001). Gq/11 and Gi/o activation profiles in CHO cells expressing human muscarinic acetylcholine receptors: dependence on agonist as well as receptor-subtype.
  182. (2006). GRKs and β-arrestins: roles in receptor silencing, trafficking and signaling.
  183. (2005). Gαq potentiation of adenylate cyclase type 9 activity through a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent pathway.
  184. (1999). Gβ5 prevents the RGS7-Galphao interaction through binding to a distinct Ggamma-like domain found in RGS7 and other RGS proteins.
  185. (1996). Gβγ transduces [Ca2+]i oscillations and Gαq a sustained response during stimulation of pancreatic acinar cells with [Ca2+]i-mobilizing agonists.
  186. (1999). HEK-293 cells possess a carbachol- and thapsigargin-sensitive intracellular Ca2+ store that is responsive to stopflow medium changes and insensitive to caffeine and ryanodine.
  187. (1988). Heparin inhibits the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent, but not the independent, calcium release induced by guanine nucleotide in vascular smooth muscle.
  188. (1998). Heterodimerization is required for the formation of a functional GABA(B) receptor.
  189. (2005). Heterotrimeric G protein-independent signaling of a G proteincoupled receptor. Direct binding of ARNO/cytohesin-2 to the carboxyl terminus of the A2A adenosine receptor is necessary for sustained activation of the ERK/MAP kinase pathway.
  190. (1998). Heterotrimeric Gi protein is associated with the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor complex and modulates calcium flux.
  191. (2008). How does intracellular Ca2+ oscillate: by chance or by the clock?
  192. (2001). Human airway smooth muscle expresses 7 isoforms of adenylyl cyclase: a dominant role for isoform V.
  193. (1999). Human colon cancer cell proliferation mediated by the M3 muscarinic cholinergic receptor.
  194. Hyperpolarization-induced dilatation of submucosal arterioles in the guinea-pig ileum.
  195. (1996). Identification of a phospholipase C β2 region that interacts with Gbeta-gamma.
  196. (2005). Identification of an agonist-induced conformational change occurring adjacent to the ligand-binding pocket of the M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor.
  197. (1999). Identification of protein kinase C phosphorylation sites involved in phorbol esterinduced desensitization of the histamine H1 receptor.
  198. (1994). Identification of receptor-activated G proteins: selective immunoprecipitation of photolabeled G-protein α subunits.
  199. (1994). Identification of the sites in MAP kinase kinase-1 phosphorylated by p74raf-1.
  200. (2004). Identification of β-arrestin2 as a G protein-coupled receptor-stimulated regulator of NFkappaB pathways.
  201. (2007). In vitro characterization of parasympathetic and sympathetic responses in cyclophosphamideinduced cystitis in the rat. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol,
  202. (2004). Induced-fit" mechanism for catecholamine binding to the β2-adrenergic receptor.
  203. (2008). Inhibition of human airway smooth muscle cell proliferation by β2-adrenergic receptors and cAMP is PKA independent: evidence for EPAC involvement.
  204. (1995). Inhibition of nuclear vesicle fusion by antibodies that block activation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors.
  205. (2002). Inhibitory mechanism of xestospongin-C on contraction and ion channels in the intestinal smooth muscle.
  206. (2003). Insights into G protein structure, function, and regulation.
  207. (1957). Interaction at endplate receptors between different choline derivatives.
  208. (2000). Interactions between corticosteroids and beta-adrenergic agonists in asthma disease induction, progression, and exacerbation.
  209. (1998). International Union of Pharmacology. XVII. Classification of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.
  210. (1999). Intracellular Ca2+ oscillations drive spontaneous contractions in cardiomyocytes during early development.
  211. (2007). Intracellular Ca2+ oscillations, a potential pacemaking mechanism in early embryonic heart cells.
  212. (1993). Intracellular calcium in canine cultured tracheal smooth muscle cells is regulated by M3 muscarinic receptors.
  213. (1993). Intracellular mechanisms of cytoplasmic Ca2+ oscillation in rat megakaryocyte.
  214. (1994). Intracellular Mg2+ movement during muscarinic stimulation. Mg2+ uptake by the intracellular Ca2+ store in rat sublingual mucous acini.
  215. (1998). Intracellular retention of recombinant GABAB receptors.
  216. (1997). Involvement of NF-kappaB in the regulation of cyclooxygenase2 protein expression in LPS-stimulated J774 macrophages.
  217. (1997). Involvement of protein kinase C in the UTP-mediated potentiation of cyclic AMP accumulation in mouse J774 macrophages.
  218. (2001). Involvement of the activation loop of ERK in the detachment from cytosolic anchoring.
  219. (1991). Involvement of the C-terminus of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor in Ca2+ release analysed using region-specific monoclonal antibodies.
  220. (1996). Isoform-specific sensitization of adenylyl cyclase activity by prior activation of inhibitory receptors: role of beta gamma subunits in transducing enhanced activity of the type VI isoform.
  221. (1999). Isoproterenol potentiates alpha-adrenergic and muscarinic receptor-mediated Ca2+ response in rat parotid cells.
  222. (1999). Isotype-specific functions of Raf kinases.
  223. (2003). Knockout of ERK5 causes multiple defects in placental and embryonic development.
  224. (1999). Lateral inhibition of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors by cytosolic Ca2+.
  225. (2003). Ligand-mediated activation of the cAMP-responsive guanine nucleotide exchange factor Epac.
  226. (2000). Lipopolysaccharide increases cyclo-oxygenase-2 expression in a colon carcinoma cell line through nuclear factor-kappa B activation.
  227. (2004). Live cell imaging of Gs and the β2-adrenergic receptor demonstrates that both αs and β1γ7 internalize upon stimulation and exhibit similar trafficking patterns that differ from that of the β2-adrenergic receptor.
  228. (2000). Localization of the sites mediating desensitization of the β2-adrenergic receptor by the GRK pathway.
  229. (2008). Location, location, location...sitespecific GPCR phosphorylation offers a mechanism for cell-type-specific signalling.
  230. (2001). Long-acting inhaled β2-agonist therapy in asthma.
  231. (2007). Longacting β2-agonists for chronic asthma in adults and children where background therapy contains varied or no inhaled corticosteroid. Cochrane Database Syst Rev,
  232. (2003). M1-M5 muscarinic receptor knockout mice as novel tools to study the physiological roles of the muscarinic cholinergic system.
  233. (2008). M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptormediated signaling is regulated by distinct mechanisms.
  234. (2002). M3-receptor knockout mice: muscarinic receptor function in atria, stomach fundus, urinary bladder, and trachea.
  235. (2003). MAP kinase modules: many roads home.
  236. (2006). MAPK signal specificity: the right place at the right time.
  237. (2000). Meaningful relationships: the regulation of the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway by protein interactions.
  238. (1995). Mechanism of impaired β-adrenoceptor responsiveness in atopic sensitized airway smooth muscle.
  239. (2000). Mechanism of regulation of the Epac family of cAMP-dependent RapGEFs.
  240. (2003). Mechanisms of cross-talk between G-protein-coupled receptors resulting in enhanced release of intracellular Ca2+.
  241. (1989). Mechanisms of cross-talk between G-proteincoupled receptors.
  242. (2001). Mechanisms of cytokine effects on G proteincoupled receptor-mediated signaling in airway smooth muscle.
  243. (1996). Mechanisms of impaired beta-adrenoceptor-induced airway relaxation by interleukin-1beta in vivo in the rat.
  244. (2009). Medicinal chemistry and therapeutic potential of muscarinic M3 antagonists.
  245. (1999). Membrane potential and intracellular Ca2+ oscillations activated by mGluRs in hippocampal stratum oriens/alveus interneurons.
  246. (2006). Meta-analysis: effect of long-acting β-agonists on severe asthma exacerbations and asthmarelated deaths.
  247. (2005). Methods to monitor the quaternary structure of G protein-coupled receptors.
  248. (2001). Mice lacking the M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor are hypophagic and lean.
  249. (1994). Modulation of airway smooth muscle β-adrenoceptor function by a muscarinic agonist.
  250. (1995). Modulation of cardiac ryanodine receptors of swine and rabbit by a phosphorylationdephosphorylation mechanism.
  251. (1989). Molecular characterization of the human β3-adrenergic receptor.
  252. (2002). Molecular determinants of glucagon receptor signaling.
  253. (2002). Molecular interpretation of ERK signal duration by immediate early gene products.
  254. (2004). Molecular mechanisms of ligand binding, signaling, and regulation within the superfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors: molecular modeling and mutagenesis approaches to receptor structure and function.
  255. (1975). Molecular structure determination by electron microscopy of unstained crystalline specimens.
  256. (2007). Monitoring interactions between G-protein-coupled receptors and β-arrestins.
  257. (2010). Mucus hypersecretion in asthma: intracellular signalling pathways as targets for pharmacotherapy.
  258. (2006). Multiple cAMP-induced signaling cascades regulate prolactin expression in T cells.
  259. (2000). Multiple functional defects in peripheral autonomic organs in mice lacking muscarinic acetylcholine receptor gene for the M3 subtype.
  260. (1993). Multiple mechanisms by which protein kinase A potentiates inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphateinduced Ca2+ mobilization in permeabilized hepatocytes.
  261. (2000). Multiple receptor activation elicits synergistic IP formation in nonpigmented ciliary body epithelial cells.
  262. (2008). Multiple roles of phosphoinositidespecific phospholipase C isozymes.
  263. (2004). Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor knockout mice: novel phenotypes and clinical implications.
  264. (1994). Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes in smooth muscle.
  265. (2003). Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and airway diseases.
  266. (1995). Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors: structural basis of ligand binding and G protein coupling.
  267. (2003). Muscarinic and nicotinic ACh receptor activation differentially mobilize Ca2+ in rat intracardiac ganglion neurons.
  268. (1998). Muscarinic and nicotinic receptormediated Ca2+ dynamics in rat adrenal chromaffin cells during development.
  269. (1999). Muscarinic cholinoceptor subtypes mediating tracheal smooth muscle contraction and inositol phosphate generation in guinea pig and rat.
  270. (2003). Muscarinic M3-receptors mediate cholinergic synergism of mitogenesis in airway smooth muscle.
  271. (1990). Muscarinic receptor subtypes.
  272. (1998). Muscarinic receptors and control of airway smooth muscle.
  273. (2006). Muscarinic receptors and salivary secretion.
  274. (1993). Muscarinic receptors--characterization, coupling and function.
  275. (1998). Muscarinic stimulation of airway smooth muscle cells.
  276. (2002). Mutations in the carboxyl-terminal domain of phospholipase C-β 1 delineate the dimer interface and a potential Galphaq interaction site.
  277. (2002). Negative regulation of nuclear factorkappaB activation and function by glucocorticoids.
  278. (1996). Negative regulation of Raf-1 by phosphorylation of serine 621.
  279. (1999). New insights into the control of MAP kinase pathways.
  280. (2004). New non-viral method for gene transfer into primary cells.
  281. (1997). NF-kappa B: a pivotal role in asthma and a new target for therapy.
  282. (2002). NF-kappaB activation and inhibition: a review.
  283. (2003). NFAT functions as a working memory of Ca2+ signals in decoding Ca2+ oscillation.
  284. (2004). Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and the regulation of neuronal signalling.
  285. (2001). Nicotinic cholinergic signaling in hippocampal astrocytes involves calcium-induced calcium release from intracellular stores.
  286. (2000). Non-competitive antagonism of β2-agonist-mediated cyclic AMP accumulation by ICI 118551 in BC3H1 cells endogenously expressing constitutively active beta(2)-adrenoceptors.
  287. (2003). Non-visual GRKs: are we seeing the whole picture?
  288. (2003). Nuclear factor kappaB activation by muscarinic receptors in astroglial cells: effect of ethanol.
  289. (2001). Oligomerization of G-protein-coupled transmitter receptors.
  290. (2008). On the nature of partial agonism in the nicotinic receptor superfamily.
  291. (2010). P2Y nucleotide receptors: promise of therapeutic applications.
  292. (2007). p42/p44 MAP kinase activation is localized to caveolaefree membrane domains in airway smooth muscle.
  293. (1997). Palmitoylation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 subtypes: reduction in their ability to activate G proteins by mutation of a putative palmitoylation site, cysteine 457, in the carboxyl-terminal tail.
  294. (2001). Parallel metabotropic pathways in the heart of the toad, Bufo marinus.
  295. (2003). Parathyroid hormone increases the sensitivity of inositol trisphosphate receptors by a mechanism that is independent of cyclic AMP.
  296. (2002). Participation of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinases in hydrogen peroxide-induced Ikappa B phosphorylation in human T lymphocytes.
  297. (2009). Passing the baton in class B GPCRs: peptide hormone activation via helix induction?
  298. (2003). Persistent activation of nuclear factor-kappaB signaling pathway in severe uncontrolled asthma.
  299. (2001). Pharmacological evidence for capacitative Ca2+ entry in cannulated and pressurized skeletal muscle arterioles.
  300. (1999). Pharmacological manipulation of Ins(1,4,5)P3 signaling mimics preconditioning in rabbit heart.
  301. (2001). Pharmacology of capacitative calcium entry.
  302. (1994). Phorbol ester-induced stimulation and phosphorylation of adenylyl cyclase 2.
  303. (2009). Phosphate-buffered saline-based nucleofection of primary endothelial cells.
  304. (1999). Phospholipase C-β1 directly accelerates GTP hydrolysis by Gαq and acceleration is inhibited by Gβγ subunits.
  305. (2000). Phosphorylation meets ubiquitination: the control of NF-[kappa]B activity.
  306. (2001). Phosphorylation of GRK2 by protein kinase C abolishes its inhibition by calmodulin.
  307. (2007). Phosphorylation of Gα11 protein contributes to agonist-induced desensitization of 5-HT2A receptor signaling.
  308. (1997). Phosphorylation of phospholipase C-coupled receptors.
  309. (1992). Phosphorylation of transcription factor p62TCF by MAP kinase stimulates ternary complex formation at c-fos promoter.
  310. (1989). Phosphorylation sites on two domains of the β2-adrenergic receptor are involved in distinct pathways of receptor desensitization.
  311. (2009). PKA and Epac cooperate to augment bradykinin-induced interleukin-8 release from human airway smooth muscle cells.
  312. (2007). PKA-I holoenzyme structure reveals a mechanism for cAMP-dependent activation.
  313. (2005). Polymorphisms of the β2-adrenergic receptor and asthma.
  314. (1999). Potentiation of ATP calcium responses by A2B receptor stimulation and other signals coupled to Gs proteins in type-1 cerebellar astrocytes.
  315. (2000). Preactivation permits subsequent stimulation of phospholipase C by Gi-coupled receptors.
  316. (2002). Presence and passage dependent loss of biochemical M3 muscarinic receptor function in human detrusor cultured smooth muscle cells.
  317. (1989). Primary structure and functional expression of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-binding protein P400.
  318. (1986). Primary structure of porcine cardiac muscarinic acetylcholine receptor deduced from the cDNA sequence.
  319. (2001). Priming effects of substance P on calcium changes evoked by interleukin-8 in human neutrophils.
  320. (2005). Probing the β2 adrenoceptor binding site with catechol reveals differences in binding and activation by agonists and partial agonists.
  321. (2009). Profiling the human protein-DNA interactome reveals ERK2 as a transcriptional repressor of interferon signaling.
  322. (2000). Prostaglandin E2-induced sensitization of bradykinin-evoked responses in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons is mediated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase A.
  323. (2002). Protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation of the beta 2-adrenergic receptor regulates its coupling to Gs and Gi. Demonstration in a reconstituted system.
  324. (1996). Protein kinase C alters the responsiveness of adenylyl cyclases to G protein α and βγ subunits.
  325. (1993). Protein kinase C sensitizes olfactory adenylate cyclase.
  326. (2007). Protein kinase D2 potentiates MEK/ERK/RSK signaling, c-Fos accumulation and DNA synthesis induced by bombesin in Swiss 3T3 cells.
  327. (2001). Ras activation of the Raf kinase: tyrosine kinase recruitment of the MAP kinase cascade. Recent Prog Horm Res,
  328. (2004). reagent: primary neurons, siRNA, and high-throughput applications.
  329. (1994). Recombinant G-protein βγ-subunits activate the muscarinic-gated atrial potassium channel.
  330. (1990). Regular inhaled beta-agonist treatment in bronchial asthma.
  331. (2000). Regular inhaled salbutamol and asthma control: the TRUST randomised trial.
  332. (2001). Regulation and role of adenylyl cyclase isoforms.
  333. (1996). Regulation by cAMP-dependent protein kinease of a Gprotein-mediated phospholipase C.
  334. (2004). Regulation of acetylcholineinduced phosphorylation of PLD1 in porcine tracheal smooth muscle.
  335. (2000). Regulation of cAMP and cGMP signaling: new phosphodiesterases and new functions.
  336. (2003). Regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression by macrophages in response to double-stranded RNA and viral infection.
  337. (1993). Regulation of expression and function of muscarinic receptors.
  338. (2003). Regulation of G protein-coupled receptor kinases and arrestins during receptor desensitization.
  339. (1990). Regulation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-induced Ca2+ release. II. Effect of cAMP-dependent protein kinase.
  340. (2002). Regulation of kinin receptors in airway epithelial cells by inflammatory cytokines and dexamethasone.
  341. (1993). Regulation of purified subtypes of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C β by G protein alpha and beta gamma subunits.
  342. (1993). Regulation of purified type I and type II adenylylcyclases by G protein beta gamma subunits.
  343. Regulation of receptor fate by ubiquitination of activated β2-adrenergic receptor and β-arrestin.
  344. (1991). Regulation of the cardiac ryanodine receptor by protein kinase-dependent phosphorylation.
  345. (1996). Regulation of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-activated Ca2+ channel by activation of G proteins.
  346. (2001). Regulation of the tip-high [Ca2+] gradient in growing hyphae of the fungus Neurospora crassa.
  347. (1991). Rhodopsin mutations in autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa.
  348. (2008). Role of Epac1, an exchange factor for Rap GTPases, in endothelial microtubule dynamics and barrier function.
  349. (2007). Role of primary care in early diagnosis and effective management of COPD.
  350. (2005). Role of specific protein kinase C isoforms in modulation of β1- and β2-adrenergic receptors.
  351. (1992). Role of thapsigargin-sensitive intracellular Ca2+ pools in secretion induced by muscarinic agonists in porcine adrenal chromaffin cells.
  352. (1997). Role of β1- and β2-adrenergic receptors in regulation of Cl- and Ca2+ channels in guinea pig ventricular myocytes.
  353. (2007). Salmeterol and cytokines modulate inositol-phosphate signalling in human airway smooth muscle cells via regulation at the receptor locus.
  354. (1998). Salmeterol-induced desensitization, internalization and phosphorylation of the human β2-adrenoceptor.
  355. (2004). Scaffolding by ERK3 regulates MK5 in development.
  356. (2007). Scaffolding proteins in G-protein signaling.
  357. (1996). Selective activation of effector pathways by brain-specific G protein beta5.
  358. (2008). Selective coupling of type 6 adenylyl cyclase with type 2 IP3 receptors mediates direct sensitization of IP3 receptors by cAMP.
  359. (1999). Selective interaction of the C2 domains of phospholipase C-β1 and -β2 with activated Gαq subunits: an alternative function for C2-signaling modules.
  360. (2000). Selective restoration of calcium coupling to muscarinic M3 receptors in contractile cultured airway myocytes.
  361. (2004). Sequential binding of agonists to the β2 adrenoceptor. Kinetic evidence for intermediate conformational states.
  362. (2008). Signaling and cross-talk by C5a and UDP in macrophages selectively use PLCβ3 to regulate intracellular free calcium.
  363. (2004). Signaling to NF-kappaB.
  364. (2006). Signalling and receptor crosstalk mediated by full and partial agonists of the muscarinic M3 receptor.
  365. Signalling networks regulating cyclooxygenase-2.
  366. (2004). Single-cell imaging of intracellular Ca2+ and phospholipase C activity reveals that
  367. (1990). Site-directed mutagenesis of the M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. Analysis of the role of N-glycosylation in receptor expression and function.
  368. (1991). Site-directed mutagenesis of the M3 muscarinic receptor: identification of a series of threonine and tyrosine residues involved in agonist but not antagonist binding.
  369. (2003). Stepping down inhaled corticosteroids in asthma: randomised controlled trial.
  370. (1999). Stimulation of A2A adenosine receptor phosphorylation by protein kinase C activation: evidence for regulation by multiple protein kinase C isoforms.
  371. (1992). Stimulation of adenosine A1 receptors and bradykinin receptors, which act via different G proteins, synergistically raises inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and intracellular free calcium in DDT1 MF-2 smooth muscle cells.
  372. (1995). Stimulation of cloned human glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor expressed in HEK 293 cells induces cAMPdependent activation of calcium-induced calcium release.
  373. (1993). Stimulation of specific types of Gs-stimulated adenylyl cyclases by phorbol ester treatment.
  374. (2008). Structural diversity of G proteincoupled receptors and significance for drug discovery.
  375. (1998). Structure and function of the β3 adrenoreceptor.
  376. (2002). Structure and transcription of the human M3 muscarinic receptor gene.
  377. (1992). Subunits beta gamma of heterotrimeric G protein activate β2 isoform of phospholipase
  378. (1997). Switching of the coupling of the β2-adrenergic receptor to different G proteins by protein kinase
  379. Synergistic activation of phospholipase C-β3 by Galphaq and Gbetagamma describes a simple two-state coincidence detector.
  380. (1995). Synergistic interaction of Y1-neuropeptide Y and alpha 1b-adrenergic receptors in the regulation of phospholipase C, protein kinase C, and arachidonic acid production.
  381. (1996). Synergistic interactions between human transfected adenosine A1 receptors and endogenous cholecystokinin receptors in CHO cells.
  382. (1994). Thapsigargin, a novel molecular probe for studying intracellular calcium release and storage.
  383. (2003). The amino-terminal domain of G-proteincoupled receptor kinase 2 is a regulatory Gβγ binding site.
  384. (1998). The caveolae membrane system.
  385. (2008). The CRAC channel consists of a tetramer formed by Stiminduced dimerization of Orai dimers.
  386. (2005). The CXCR1 and CXCR2 receptors form constitutive homo- and heterodimers selectively and with equal apparent affinities.
  387. (2009). The decay phase of Ca2+ transients in skeletal muscle: regulation and physiology.
  388. (2006). The detection of MAPK signaling.
  389. (2000). The effect of mutations in the DRY motif on the constitutive activity and structural instability of the histamine H2 receptor.
  390. (1999). The effects of 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, a novel inositol 1,4, 5-trisphosphate receptor modulator on myometrial contractions.
  391. (2004). The evolution of transmembrane helix kinks and the structural diversity of G proteincoupled receptors.
  392. (1995). The family of G-protein-coupled receptors.
  393. (2005). The frequencies of calcium oscillations are optimized for efficient calcium-mediated activation of Ras and the ERK/MAPK cascade.
  394. (1992). The G-protein-coupled receptor kinases β ARK1 and β ARK2 are widely distributed at synapses in rat brain.
  395. (2007). The highly conserved DRY motif of class A G protein-coupled receptors: beyond the ground state.
  396. (2000). The importance of ERK activity in the regulation of cyclin D1 levels and DNA synthesis in human cultured airway smooth muscle.
  397. (2005). The NF-kappaB signaling pathway in human genetic diseases.
  398. (2006). The nuclear localization of ERK2 occurs by mechanisms both independent of and dependent on energy.
  399. (2005). The origins of diversity and specificity in g protein-coupled receptor signaling.
  400. (2006). The phenotypic differentiation of locus ceruleus noradrenergic neurons mediated by brainderived neurotrophic factor is enhanced by corticotropin releasing factor through the activation of a cAMP-dependent signaling pathway.
  401. (1990). The putative disulphide bond in muscarinic receptors.
  402. (2005). The repertoire of G-protein-coupled receptors in fully sequenced genomes.
  403. (2010). The role of dimerisation in the cellular trafficking of G-proteincoupled receptors.
  404. (1999). The role of inositol trisphosphate-induced Ca2+ release from IP3-receptor in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus on circadian entrainment mechanism.
  405. (2005). The role of intracellular Ca2+ in the regulation of proteinase-activated receptor-2 mediated nuclear factor kappa B signalling in keratinocytes.
  406. (2009). The structure and function of G-protein-coupled receptors.
  407. (1998). The ubiquitin system.
  408. (2002). The β-adrenergic receptors.
  409. (1999). The β2-adrenergic receptor/betaarrestin complex recruits the clathrin adaptor AP-2 during endocytosis.
  410. (1999). The β3-adrenergic receptor activates mitogenactivated protein kinase in adipocytes through a Gi-dependent mechanism.
  411. (1993). Tissue distribution of β3-adrenergic receptor mRNA in man.
  412. (2003). Trafficking patterns of beta-arrestin and G protein-coupled receptors determined by the kinetics of beta-arrestin deubiquitination.
  413. (2006). Transcription factors in airway diseases.
  414. (2002). Transformation of local Ca2+ spikes to global Ca2+ transients: the combinatorial roles of multiple Ca2+ releasing messengers.
  415. (1997). Turning off the signal: mechanisms that attenuate signaling by G protein-coupled receptors.
  416. (1993). Type II adenylylcyclase integrates coincident signals from Gs, Gi, and Gq.
  417. (2000). Up-regulation of airway smooth muscle histamine H1 receptor mRNA, protein, and function by β2-adrenoceptor activation.
  418. (1999). Use of a disulfide crosslinking strategy to study muscarinic receptor structure and mechanisms of activation.
  419. (1995). Use of thapsigargin to study Ca2+ homeostasis in cardiac cells.
  420. (2006). Validation of the antiinflammatory properties of small-molecule IkappaB Kinase (IKK)-2 inhibitors by comparison with adenoviral-mediated delivery of dominant-negative IKK1 and IKK2 in human airways smooth muscle.
  421. (1999). Xestospongin C is an equally potent inhibitor of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor and the endoplasmic-reticulum Ca2+ pumps.
  422. (1997). Xestospongins: potent membrane permeable blockers of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor.
  423. (1993). α melanocyte stimulating hormone (α MSH) stimulates normal human melanocyte growth by binding to high-affinity receptors.
  424. (2001). α-adrenoceptor subtypes.
  425. (1998). β-adrenergic receptor number in human lymphocytes is inversely correlated with aerobic capacity.
  426. (2005). β-adrenergic receptor stimulation promotes G alpha s internalization through lipid rafts: a study in living cells.
  427. (2001). β-adrenergic receptor subtype-specific signaling in cardiac myocytes from β1 and β2 adrenoceptor knockout mice.
  428. (2005). β-arrestin binding to the β2-adrenergic receptor requires both receptor phosphorylation and receptor activation.
  429. (1999). β-arrestin-dependent formation of β2 adrenergic receptor-Src protein kinase complexes.
  430. (2006). β-arrestin-dependent, G protein-independent ERK1/2 activation by the beta2 adrenergic receptor.
  431. (1994). β1- and β2-adrenoceptor antagonist activities of ICI-215001, a putative β3-adrenoceptor agonist.
  432. (2002). Β1/β2/β3-adrenoceptor knockout mice are obese and cold-sensitive but have normal lipolytic responses to fasting.
  433. (2002). β2 adrenergic receptor activation. Modulation of the proline kink in transmembrane 6 by a rotamer toggle switch.
  434. (2000). β2-adrenergic receptor activates extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) via the small G protein rap1 and the serine/threonine kinase B-Raf.
  435. (1997). β2-adrenergic receptor desensitization, internalization, and phosphorylation in response to full and partial agonists.
  436. β2-Adrenergic signaling in human heart: shift from the cyclic AMP to the arachidonic acid pathway.
  437. (2007). β2-Adrenoceptor polymorphisms and asthma phenotypes: interactions with passive smoking.
  438. (2004). β2-adrenoceptor polymorphisms: relation between in vitro and in vivo phenotypes.
  439. (2005). β2-agonist and anticholinergic drugs in the treatment of lung disease.
  440. (2001). β3-adrenoceptor agonists as anti-diabetic and anti-obesity drugs in humans.
  441. (1997). βγ subunits of pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins mediate A1 adenosine receptor agonist-induced activation of phospholipase C in collaboration with thyrotropin. A novel stimulatory mechanism through the cross-talk of two types of receptors.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.