Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Public Relations Strategies and Blood Donation in Thailand: A Case Study of Blood Donors and Non-Donors

By Patama Satawedin


The study explores the relationship between public relations strategies regarding blood donation in Thailand and audience responses to blood donation on the part of blood donors and non-donors as a comparative case study in terms of a) demographics, media exposure to blood and blood donation messages, knowledge of blood and blood donation, attitudes towards blood donation, and practices of blood donation and nondonation and b) blood and blood donation media messages.\ud A variety of literature regarding public relations, communication, persuasion, and blood donation was reviewed and explained under a two-way, cyclical process of public relations, starting with analysing the situation, the programming and planning of communication objectives and goals and the defined target audiences, and communicating and implementing public relations strategies. The process ended with feedback and evaluation. To accomplish the objectives of the study, a mixed strategy of semi-structured in-depth interviews and documentary research was used for examining the communication source. Four hundred questionnaires and eight focus groups, divided equally to compare blood donors and non-donors, were employed to investigate responses to blood donation.\ud The study revealed the importance of distributing blood and blood donation messages targeted to raise knowledge, inform attitudes and motivate behaviour change, through the controlled media supplemented by uncontrolled means and personal channels. Similarly, levels of education and knowledge, together with attitudes are all indicative factors in donating blood, while non-donors were lacking those variables. Important reasons for blood donation or non-donation were also, respectively, altruism and fear. Otherwise blood donors and non-donors mainly reflected similar responses to the media messages; however, non-donors made more requests for fear reduction and statistics and attached greater importance to message repetition. The available resources of the communication source, the messages themselves, and the communication channels all play an important role in promoting blood donation to the audiences

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 2011
OAI identifier:

Suggested articles


  1. 11/12, 2007-last update, The development of drink-driving mass media advertising
  2. (2006). A 10-year retrospective of research in health mass media campaigns: Where do we go from here?
  3. (1990). A matter of record: Documentary sources in social research.
  4. (2010). A new audience segmentation tool for African Americans: The Black identity classification scale.
  5. (2007). A path analysis of intention to redonate among experienced blood donors: An extension of the theory of planned behavior.
  6. (2010). A profile of Australian adults who have discussed their posthumous organ donation wishes with family members.
  7. (2009). A Qualitative evaluation of the information, education, and communication component of the tuberculosis control program in Delhi, India. Asia Pacific
  8. (2008). A quasi-experimental investigation of message appeal variations on organ donor registration rates.
  9. (2010). A randomized evaluation of loss and gain frames in an invitation to screening for type 2 diabetes: Effects on attendance, anxiety and self-rated health.
  10. (2009). A study of the effect of message framing on oocyte donation.
  11. (1966). A summary of experimental studies of opinion change.
  12. (2006). A systematic review for the effects of television viewing by infants and preschoolers.
  13. (2010). Absolute risk representation in cardiovascular disease prevention: Comprehension and preferences of health care consumers and general practitioners involved in a focus group study.
  14. (1997). Activating interpersonal influence through provocative appeals: Evaluation of a mass media-based antismoking campaign targeting adolescents.
  15. (2008). Adolescents' responses to antitobacco advertising: Exploring the role of adolescents' smoking status and advertisement theme.
  16. (2001). Advanced focus group research.
  17. (2009). African American men’s understanding and perceptions about prostate cancer: Why multiple dimensions of health literacy are important in cancer communication.
  18. (2002). Age and consumer socialization agent influences on adolescents' sexual knowledge, attitudes, and behavior: Implications for social marketing initiatives and public policy.
  19. Age-related donor return patterns among first-time blood donors in the United States.
  20. (2010). An analysis of decision making in cord blood donation through a participatory approach.
  21. (2004). An application of the theory of planned behaviour to blood donation: The importance of self-efficacy.
  22. (2008). An empathy-helping perspective on consumers’ responses to fund-raising appeals.
  23. (2004). An examination of factors that affect the credibility of online health information.
  24. (2006). Annual Report, Thai Red Cross Society,
  25. Application of internet and information technology in recruitment of safe blood donors.
  26. (2009). Applying core principles to the design and evaluation of the ‘Take Charge. Take the Test’ campaign: What worked and lessons learned. Public Health, 123(Supplement 1), e23-e30. Available from:
  27. (1974). Approaching speech/communication.
  28. (2010). Are racial differences in patient-physician cancer communication and information explained by background, predisposing, and enabling factors?
  29. (2010). Are women getting relevant information about mammography screening for an informed consent: A critical appraisal of information brochures used for screening invitation in Germany, Italy, Spain and France.
  30. (2007). Asianizing K-pop: Production, consumption and identification patterns among Thai youth.
  31. (2008). Attitude, belief and knowledge about blood donation and transfusion in Saudi population.
  32. (1981). Attitudes and persuasion: Classic and contemporary approaches.
  33. attitudes that sustain smoking in China.
  34. (2007). Attitudes towards blood donation in Trinidad and Tobago.
  35. (2008). Audience readings of media messages about MRSA.
  36. (2007). Availability, accessibility and utilization of mass media channels: Implications for extension delivery among cassava producers in the central agricultural zone of Delta State,
  37. Available from: [20/11/2010].
  38. Available from: [14/12/2010].
  39. Available from: [19/11/2010].
  40. Available from:
  41. Available from: =ehost-live [04/08/2009].
  42. Available from: =ehost-live [04/08/2009].
  43. Available from: =ehost-live [31/07/2009].
  44. Available from: =ehost-live [04/08/2009].
  45. Available from: =ehost-live [04/08/2009].
  46. Available from: host-live [04/08/2009].
  47. Available from: host-live [05/09/2009].
  48. Available from: [20/11/2010].
  49. Available from:
  50. Available from:
  51. (2008). Behavior disparities towards blood donation in Sikkim,
  52. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. London:
  53. (2009). Black youth's personal involvement in the HIV/AIDS issue: Does the public service announcement still work?
  54. (2008). Blood donation is an act of benevolence rather than altruism.
  55. (2008). Blood donations and incentives: Evidence from a field experiment.
  56. (1994). Blood donor behaviour in Greece: Implications for health policy. Social Science &.
  57. (2005). Blood supply and demand.
  58. (2001). Body image preference in the United States and rural Thailand: An exploratory study.
  59. (2008). Breaking the silence surrounding hepatitis C by promoting self-efficacy: Hepatitis C public service announcements.
  60. (1988). Buddha-Dhamma for students: Answers to questions a non-Buddhist is likely to ask about the fundamentals of Buddhism. Available:
  61. (1994). Buddhism as a religion. Available:
  62. Buddhist arts of Thailand. Available:
  63. (2010). Cancer information scanning and seeking in the general population.
  64. (2010). Cancer information sources used by patients to inform and influence treatment decisions.
  65. (2010). Cancer-related information seeking and scanning behavior of older Vietnamese immigrants.
  66. (2003). Case study research: Design and methods. 3 edn.
  67. (2005). Celebrity endorsements of cancer screening.
  68. (2004). Celebrity sells.
  69. (2008). Chairman, Executive Board and Former Director, National Blood Center, Thai Red Cross Society,
  70. (1990). Channel effectiveness over time and knowledge and behavior gaps.
  71. (2007). Chief, Public Relations and Blood Donor Recruitment Division, National Blood Center, Thai Red Cross Society,
  72. (1995). Choosing audience segmentation strategies and methods for health communication.
  73. (2010). Colonoscopy Screening Information Preferences Among Urban Hispanics.
  74. (2003). Combating AIDS: Communication strategies in action.
  75. (1992). Common knowledge: News and the construction of political meaning.
  76. (2008). Communicating safe motherhood: Strategic messaging in a globalized world.
  77. (1987). Communication and education. Milton Keynes:
  78. (1979). Communication and the managerial function: Some suggestions for improving organizational communication.
  79. (1993). Communication models for the study of mass communications. 2 edn.
  80. (1999). Communication planning: An integrated approach.
  81. (2009). Communication prompts donation: Exploring the beliefs underlying registration and discussion of the organ donation decision.
  82. (2002). Communication research methods.
  83. (1973). Communication strategies for family planning.
  84. (1992). Communication theories: Origins, methods, and uses in the mass media. 3 edn.
  85. (1971). Comparative politics and the comparative method.
  86. (2007). Comparative study of young people's response to anti-smoking messages.
  87. (2005). Comparing demographic, health status and psychosocial strategies of audience segmentation to promote physical activity.
  88. (2001). Confidence in the safety of blood for transfusion: The effect of message framing.
  89. (2010). Confronting the assumptions: Exploring the nature and predictors of black adolescents' media use.
  90. (2000). Constructing effective questionnaires.
  91. (2008). Cost-effectiveness analysis of a statewide media campaign to promote adolescent physical activity. Health Promotion Practice,
  92. (1999). Cronbach's Alpha: A tool for assessing the reliability of scales.
  93. Cross Society, 2008b-last update, Thai Red Cross Society [Homepage of Thai Red Cross Society],
  94. (2008). Crowding out in blood donation: Was Titmuss right?
  95. (2000). Cultural context and its impact on requirements elicitation in Thailand.
  96. (2006). Designing qualitative research. 4 edn.
  97. (2007). Determinants of return behavior: A comparison of current and lapsed donors.
  98. (2009). Developing effective campaign messages to prevent neural tube defects: A qualitative assessment of women's reactions to advertising concepts.
  99. (1987). Dimensions of consumer expertise.
  100. (2008). Director, National Blood Center, Thai Red Cross Society,
  101. (2007). Director, National Blood Center, Thai Red Cross Society, interviewed by a Disk Jockey of 103.5 FM One Better Music Happy Station, one of the most popular radio stations in Thailand,
  102. (2008). Director, Strategic and Planning Office, Thai Red Cross Society,
  103. (2009). Disaster communication on the internet: A focus on mobilizing information.
  104. (1986). Doctor-patient communication in rheumatology: Studies of visual and verbal perception using educational booklets and other graphic material.
  105. (2008). Does the internet displace health professionals?
  106. (2009). Does watching smoking in movies promote teenage smoking?
  107. (2007). Doing focus groups. 1 edn.
  108. (1999). Doing quantitative research in the social sciences: An integrated approach to research design, measurement and statistics.
  109. (2004). Doing research in the real world.
  110. (2010). Don’t forget the distributor! The importance of field testing draft educational materials with key gatekeepers before production and dissemination.
  111. (2009). Donor profiles: Demographic factors and their influence on the donor career.
  112. Donor recruitment research. Vox Sanguinis,
  113. donors' motivation and attitude to non-remunerated blood donation in Lithuania.
  114. (1970). eds, Altruism and helping behavior: Social psychological studies of some antecedents and consequences. 1 edn.
  115. (2005). eds, Research methods in the social sciences. 1 edn.
  116. (1998). eds, The circuit of mass communication: Media strategies, representation and audience reception in the AIDS crisis. 1 edn.
  117. (2007). eds, The SAGE handbook of social science methodology. 1 edn.
  118. (2003). Effect of a national disaster on blood supply and safety: The September 11 experience.
  119. (2000). Effective public relations. 8 edn. Upper Saddle River,
  120. (2003). Effects of anti-smoking advertising on youth smoking: A review.
  121. (2009). Effects of different types of antismoking ads on reducing disparities in smoking cessation among socioeconomic subgroups.
  122. (2008). Effects of gain versus loss frame antidrug ads on adolescents.
  123. (2006). Effects of mass and interpersonal communication on breast cancer screening: Advancing agenda-setting theory in health contexts.
  124. (2008). Effects of program exposure and engagement with tailored prevention communication on sun protection by young adolescents.
  125. (2007). Emigration from the British Isles to Southeastern Spain: A study of attitudes toward organ donation.
  126. (2008). Empirical political analysis: Quantitative and qualitative research methods. 7 edn.
  127. (2008). Empowering the people: Development of an HIV peer education model for low literacy rural communities in India. Human Resources for Health,
  128. (2008). Enhancing attitudes and intentions in prospective blood donors: Evaluation of a new donor recruitment brochure.
  129. (2000). Enhancing motivation, ability, and opportunity to process public relations messages.
  130. (2008). Entertainment-education and recruitment of cornea donors: The role of emotion and issue involvement.
  131. (2009). Ethnic and gender differences in patient education about heart disease risk and prevention.
  132. (2006). Ethnic and gender differences in willingness among high school students to donate organs.
  133. (2009). Ethnicity- and socio-economic status-related stresses in context: An integrative review and conceptual model.
  134. (2001). Evaluating communication campaigns. In:
  135. (2010). Evaluation, use, and usefulness of prescription drug information sources among Anglo and Hispanic Americans.
  136. (2010). Examination of media channels and types as health information sources for adolescents: Comparisons for black/white, male/female, urban/rural.
  137. Expert Systems with Applications,
  138. (2007). Exploring the willingness of scholars to accept open access: A grounded theory approach.
  139. (2008). Factors associated with inconsistent condom use among female sex workers in Nha Trang, Vietnam. Asia Pacific
  140. (2007). Factors that motivate and hinder blood donation in Greece.
  141. (2010). Fear patterns: A new approach to designing road safety advertisements.
  142. (2009). Fear, threat and efficacy in threat appeals: Message involvement as a key mediator to message acceptance.
  143. (2006). Five misunderstandings about case-study research.
  144. (1992). Fly too close to the sun and 11 other guidelines for writing hot magazine features.
  145. (2004). Focus group research. In:
  146. (2000). Focus groups: A practical guide for applied research. 3 edn.
  147. (2007). Focus groups: Theory and practice. 2 edn.
  148. (2010). Formative research regarding kidney disease health information in a Latino American sample: Associations among message frame, threat, efficacy, message effectiveness, and behavioral intention.
  149. (2008). Gender differences in responding to sad emotional appeal: A moderated mediation explanation.
  150. (1992). Getting the message across: Public relations, publicity and working with the media.
  151. (2009). Getting the message straight: Effects of a brief hepatitis prevention intervention among injection drug users.
  152. (2008). Global and local networking for HIV/AIDS prevention: The case of the Saathii e-forum.
  153. (2007). Government Public Relations Department,
  154. (2010). Health content in Chinese newspapers.
  155. (2007). Health research sampling methods. In:
  156. (2007). Health-care product advertising: The influences of message framing and perceived product characteristics.
  157. (2006). Helping me, helping you: Self-referencing and gender roles in donor advertising.
  158. (2008). Hispanic ethnicity, race and blood donation in the United States.
  159. (2010). HIV/AIDS stigma and religiosity among African American women.
  160. (2003). How advertising influences the attitudes and reported behaviour of middle-class British adolescents.
  161. (2009). How can we reach them? Information seeking and preferences for a cancer family history campaign in underserved communities.
  162. (1993). How unique is the perspective of television? A field experiment on the perception of a campaign event by participants and television viewers.
  163. (1980). Human inference: Strategies and shortcomings of social judgment.
  164. (2006). I intend to donate but …": Nondonors' views of blood donation in the UK.
  165. (2005). Impact of news of celebrity illness on breast cancer screening: Kylie Minogue's breast cancer diagnosis.
  166. (2005). Improving attitudes toward prostate examinations by loss-framed appeals.
  167. (2007). Influences of general and traditional Chinese beliefs on the decision to donate blood among employerorganized and volunteer donors in Beijing,
  168. (2001). Information exposure and the willingness for blood donation among upper secondary school students in Bangkok. MA Thesis edn.
  169. (2008). Initial outcomes of the VERB™ campaign: Tweens’ awareness and understanding of campaign messages.
  170. (2001). Input and output variables currently promising for constructing persuasive communications. In:
  171. (2009). Interactive graphics for expressing health risks: Development and qualitative evaluation.
  172. (2003). Interpreting quantitative data with SPSS.
  173. (2005). Interviewing and focus groups.
  174. (1992). Interviews with campaign designers/experts. In:
  175. (1996). Interviews: An introduction to qualitative research interviewing.
  176. (1997). Introduction to case study.
  177. (1971). Introduction: The nature of an audience. In:
  178. (2008). Issues in the mobilisation of youths for blood donation in Africa.
  179. (2010). Keys to open the door for blood donors to return.
  180. (2002). Knowledge about blood donation among a sample of Thai university students.
  181. (2006). Knowledge, attitude and practice study about blood donation in the urban population of
  182. (2005). Knowledge, attitude and practice survey regarding blood donation in a Northwestern Chinese city.
  183. (2008). Knowledge, attitudes and motivations among blood donors
  184. (2004). Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding blood donation among the Saudi population.
  185. (2009). Knowledge, attitudes, and practices about tuberculosis and choice of communication channels in a rural community in Vietnam.
  186. (2004). Knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and motivations towards blood donations among blood donors in Lagos,
  187. (2007). Management and organisational behaviour. 2 European edn.
  188. (1998). Mass communication research methods.
  189. (1995). Mass communication theory: Foundations, ferment, and future.
  190. (2009). Mass media and HIV/AIDS in China.
  191. (2009). Mass media for smoking cessation in adolescents.
  192. (2010). Mass media interventions to reduce youth smoking prevalence.
  193. (2000). Mass media research: An introduction. 6 edn. London:
  194. (2006). Mass media research: An introduction. 8 edn. London:
  195. (2000). Media and communication research methods: An introduction to qualitative and quantitative research approaches.
  196. (2000). Media and youth: Access, exposure, and privatization.
  197. (2008). Media campaigns to promote smoking cessation among socioeconomically disadvantaged populations: What do we know, what do we need to learn, and what should we do now?
  198. (1995). Media celebrities and public health: Responses to “Magic” Johnson's HIV disclosure and its impact on AIDS risk and high-risk behaviors.
  199. (1984). Media mix--do we practice what we preach?
  200. (2000). Media research methods: Measuring audiences, reactions and impact.
  201. (2006). Mediating social representations using a cartoon narrative in the context of HIV/AIDS The AmaQhawe Family Project in South Africa.
  202. (2006). Memorial to HRH Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn’s presiding over the 8th National Blood Service Region, Thai Red Cross Society, Amphur Muang, Nakhon Sawan,
  203. (2003). Methodological issues in the use of published cartoons as data.
  204. (2010). Mixed emotional appeals in emotional and danger control processes.
  205. (2008). Mixed methods research in the social sciences. In:
  206. (2009). Modelling antecedents of blood donation motivation among non-donors of varying age and education.
  207. (2006). More than just cartoons.
  208. (2005). Motivation, recruitment and retention of voluntary non-remunerated blood donors: A survey-based questionnaire study.
  209. (2010). Moving beyond the function of the health behaviour: The effect of message frame on behavioural decision-making.
  210. (1995). Moving people to behavior change: A staged social cognitive approach to message design.
  211. MyStudentBody-Stress: An online stress management intervention for college students.
  212. (2008). Occupational practices and the making of health news: A national survey of US health and medical science journalists.
  213. (2004). Office of the Consumer Protection Board, 2006-last update, the ministerial regulation on alcohol and caffeine advertising in cinemas and billboards
  214. (1979). On studying organizational cultures.
  215. Online illegal drug use information: An exploratory analysis of drug-related website viewing by adolescents.
  216. (2007). Opinions about donating blood among those who never gave and those who stopped: A focus group assessment.
  217. (2003). Organizational behavior. 10 International edn. Upper Saddle River,
  218. (2006). Organizational change. 3 edn. Harlow: Financial Times
  219. (2004). Patient communication: A multidisciplinary approach using animated cartoons.
  220. (2001). Personal communication networks and the effects of an entertainment-education radio soap opera in Tanzania.
  221. (2007). Pharmacy student focus groups for formative evaluation of the learning environment.
  222. (1998). Planning focus groups: Focus group kit 2.
  223. (1995). Political campaign communication: Principles and practices. 3 edn.
  224. (2007). Popular people have good things.
  225. (1996). PR!: A social history of spin.
  226. (2002). Practical social investigation: Qualitative and quantitative methods in social research.
  227. Practicing what they preach: Health behaviors of those who provide health advice to extensive social networks.
  228. (2009). Predicting audience exposure to television in today's media environment: An empirical integration of active-audience and structural theories.
  229. (2008). Predicting donation among an Irish sample of donors and nondonors: Extending the theory of planned behavior.
  230. Predicting intentions to donate blood among nondonors in Australia: An extended theory of planned behavior.
  231. (2009). Preferences for perinatal health communication of women in rural Tibet.
  232. (2004). Primary sources of health information: Comparisons in the domain of health attitudes, health cognitions, and health behaviors.
  233. (2003). Problems associated with remunerated blood donors in the United Arab Emirates: A study of clinical and social problems associated with the transfusion of blood and plasma collected from paid donors and the merits of voluntary donation.
  234. (2009). Profiling blood donors in Egypt: A neural network analysis.
  235. (2007). Promoting public health messages: Should we move beyond fear-evoking appeals in road safety?
  236. (2009). Prostate cancer communication strategies recommended by older African-American men in South Carolina: A qualitative analysis.
  237. (1965). Public opinion: Nature, formation, and role.
  238. (2003). Public relations and news sources.
  239. (1997). Public relations and the media. London: English Tourist Board.
  240. (1996). Public relations campaign strategies: Planning for implementation. 2 edn.
  241. (2006). Public relations strategies and effectiveness of Following His Majesty The King's Foot Step with Love and Goodness project. MA Thesis edn.
  242. (2003). Public relations strategies and tactics. 7 edn.
  243. (2001). Public relations strategy.
  244. (1987). Public Relations, Inc,
  245. (2008). Public relations: Concepts, practice and critique.
  246. (1992). Putting the fear back into fear appeals: The extended parallel process model.
  247. (2008). Qual vs quant ... again!
  248. (2008). Qualitative case study methodology: Study design and implementation for novice researchers. The Qualitative Report,
  249. (1990). Qualitative evaluation and research methods. 2 edn.
  250. (2002). Qualitative research & evaluation methods. 3 edn.
  251. (2007). Qualitative research methods for the social sciences. 6 edn.
  252. (2002). Qualitative research methods in public relations and marketing communications.
  253. (2004). Quantifying losses to the donated blood supply due to donor deferral and miscollection.
  254. (2003). Quantitative methods in social science: The role of numbers made easy.
  255. (2007). Quantitative survey methods in health
  256. (2009). Race, racism and health: Disparities, mechanisms, and interventions.
  257. (2009). Raising awareness of hypertension risk through a web-based framing intervention: Does consideration of future consequences make a difference?
  258. (2008). Re-donation intentions among experienced blood donors: Does gender make a difference?
  259. Readability levels of health pamphlets distributed in hospitals and health centres in Athens,
  260. (2004). Recruiting blood donors: Challenges and opportunities.
  261. (2007). Recruitment Division, National Blood Center, Thai Red Cross Society,
  262. (2010). Reductions in drinking and alcohol-related harms reported by first-year college students taking an online alcohol education course: A randomized trial.
  263. (2008). Reproductive health information for young women in Kazakhstan: Disparities in access by channel.
  264. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. 3 edn.
  265. (2000). Research handbook: Practical research. 4 edn.
  266. (2003). Researching audiences: A practical guide to methods in media audience analysis.
  267. (1998). Resisting the message: The extent and limits of media influence. In:
  268. (2008). Responding to offers of altruistic living unrelated kidney donation by group associations: An ethical analysis.
  269. (2008). Risk perceptions and worry about cancer: Does gender make a difference?
  270. (1963). Sex and Persuasibility.
  271. (1997). Shaping perceptions to motivate healthy behavior: The role of message framing.
  272. (1986). Situational effects of advertising repetition: The moderating influence of motivation, ability, and opportunity to respond.
  273. (2008). Smoking-cessation media campaigns and their effectiveness among socioeconomically advantaged and disadvantaged populations.
  274. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cilffs,
  275. (2006). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches.
  276. (2001). Social research methods.
  277. (2005). Social research. 3 edn.
  278. (2005). Socio-cultural barriers to voluntary blood donation for obstetric use in a rural Nigerian village.
  279. (2004). Socio-personal profile of teenagers opposed to organ donation.
  280. (2009). Sociodemographic variations in communication on sexuality and HIV/AIDS with parents, family members and teachers among in-school adolescents: A multi-site study in Tanzania and South Africa.
  281. (1973). Some reasons why information campaigns
  282. (1973). Some reasons why information campaigns can succeed.
  283. (1998). Sourcing AIDS news. In:
  284. (1971). Speech communication.
  285. (2010). Sports celebrities and public health: Diego Maradona’s influence on drug use prevention.
  286. (2010). Spreading the handwashing message: An alternative to traditional media campaigns.
  287. (2006). SPSS for psychologists: A guide to data analysis using SPSS for windows
  288. (1982). Stalking the elusive “vividness” effect.
  289. (2007). Statistical methods for health data analysis. In:
  290. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. 2 edn. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  291. (1967). Statistics: An introductory analysis. 2 edn. London: Harper and Row.
  292. (2001). Strategic public relations management: Planning and managing effective communication programs. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates,Publishers.
  293. (1996). Strategy in advertising: Matching media and messages to markets and motivations. 3 edn.
  294. (1994). Talk on television: Audience participation and public debate.
  295. Television campaigns and adolescent marijuana use: Tests of sensation seeking targeting.
  296. (2009). Television news exposure is related to fear of breast cancer.
  297. (2009). Testing a theory-based health communication program: A replication of Go Sun Smart in outdoor winter recreation.
  298. (2004). Thai celebrity culture and the Bangkok teenage audience.
  299. (1997). Thai Red Cross Society,
  300. Thai Red Cross Society, 03/18, 2008a-last update, Blood Bag, Equipment, and Chemical Production Division [Homepage of National Blood Center, Thai Red Cross Society],
  301. Thai Red Cross Society, 04/02, 2008c-last update, Organisation chart and manpower [Homepage of National Blood Center, Thai Red Cross Society], [Online]. Available: title=&bttcol=False [10/08/2009].
  302. Thai Red Cross Society, 07/28, 2009-last update, Criteria for blood donor selection [Homepage
  303. Thai Red Cross Society, 12/07, 2007g-last update,
  304. (2006). Thai Red Cross Society, 2006a, Annual report
  305. Thai Red Cross Society, 2006b. How excellent is blood donation …. Brochure edn. Bangkok: National Blood Center, Thai Red Cross Society.
  306. (2006). Thai Red Cross Society, 2006c. The 24th Committee for Recruitment and Promotion of Voluntary Blood Donor of the Thai Red Cross Society 2/2006, dated
  307. Thai Red Cross Society, 2006d. Why blood donation is needed. Brochure edn. Bangkok: National Blood Center, Thai Red Cross Society.
  308. Thai Red Cross Society, 2007a. Book of public relations materials collections. Document edn. Bangkok: National Blood Center, Thai Red Cross Society.
  309. Thai Red Cross Society, 2007b. Comparisons of blood collections in the fiscal years 2005-2007. Document edn. Bangkok: National Blood Center, Thai Red Cross Society.
  310. Thai Red Cross Society, 2007d. Form number MSP 002/001: First plan: Plan for sufficient blood collection:
  311. Thai Red Cross Society, 2007f. Knowledge about blood donation. Booklet edn. Bangkok: National Blood Center, Thai Red Cross Society.
  312. Thai Red Cross Society, 2007i. Rh-Negative blood. Brochure edn. Bangkok: National Blood Center, Thai Red Cross Society.
  313. Thai Red Cross Society, 2007j. Stem cell: Cell for life, cell for love. Brochure edn. Bangkok: National Blood Center, Thai Red Cross Society.
  314. Thai Red Cross Society, 2007k. Structure and responsibilities of the Units under the Public Relations and Blood Donor Recruitment Division. Document edn. Bangkok: National Blood Center, Thai Red Cross Society.
  315. (2007). Thai Red Cross Society, 2007l. The 24th Committee for Recruitment and Promotion of Voluntary Blood Donor of the Thai Red Cross Society 8/2007, dated
  316. (2007). Thai Red Cross Society, 2007n. The 24th Committee for Recruitment and Promotion of Voluntary Blood Donor of the Thai Red Cross Society 4/2007, dated
  317. Thai Red Cross Society, 2007o. The 108 popular questions. Booklet edn. Bangkok: National Blood Center, Thai Red Cross Society.
  318. Thai Red Cross Society, 2007p. The blood donation booklet, if you wish to donate blood, you should read [this]. Booklet edn. Bangkok: National Blood Center, Thai Red Cross Society.
  319. Thai Red Cross Society, 2007q. The number of deferred blood donors with various reasons at the National Blood Center and at mobile units between the years 2004 and 2006. Document edn. Bangkok: National Blood Center, Thai Red Cross Society.
  320. Thai Red Cross Society, 2007r. The comparative number of male and female blood donors in the fiscal years 1997-2006. Document edn. Bangkok: National Blood Center, Thai Red Cross Society.
  321. Thai Red Cross Society, 2007s, What is blood?
  322. (2008). The
  323. (1995). The art of case study research.
  324. (2008). The blood donation experience: Self-reported motives and obstacles for donating blood.
  325. The cartoon in doctor-patient communication. Further study of the Arthritis and Rheumatism council handbook on gout.
  326. (1998). The circuit of mass communication: Media strategies, representation and audience reception in the AIDS crisis.
  327. (1993). The dynamics of persuasion.
  328. (1987). The effect of message framing on breast selfexamination attitudes, intentions, and behavior.
  329. (2001). The effectiveness of media used to promote blood donation among the government and private office workers. MA Thesis edn.
  330. (1960). The effects of mass communication.
  331. (2002). The elaboration likelihood model: Its impact on persuasion theory and research.
  332. (1979). The ethnographic interview.
  333. (2006). The gatekeeper interview assignment: Teaching public relations students how to write for the news media and to conduct media relations effectively.
  334. (2010). The identification of framed messages in the New York State Smokers’ Quitline materials,
  335. The impact of a celebrity promotional campaign on the use of colon cancer screening: The Katie Couric effect.
  336. (2009). The ineffable disease: Exploring young people's discourses about
  337. (2003). The influence of famous athletes on health beliefs and practices: Mark McGwire, child abuse prevention, and androstenedione.
  338. (2010). The influence of smokers' degree of dependence on the effectiveness of message framing for capturing smokers for a quitline.
  339. (2009). The influence of the national truth® campaign on smoking initiation.
  340. (1971). The mass media and modern society. 2 edn. San Francisco:
  341. (2008). The perceived effectiveness of persuasive messages: Questions of structure, referent, and bias.
  342. (2006). The portrayal of heart disease in mass print magazines,
  343. (2002). The POWER campaign for promotion of female and male condoms: Audience research and campaign development.
  344. (2006). The Power of public relations in media relations: A national survey of health PR practitioners.
  345. (2008). The psychology of blood donation: Current research and future directions.
  346. (2009). The role of internet engagement in the health-knowledge gap.
  347. (2008). The role of message framing in promoting MMR vaccination: Evidence of a loss-frame advantage.
  348. (2008). The role of motivation and media involvement in explaining internet dependency.
  349. (2010). The role of patient satisfaction in online health information seeking.
  350. (2010). The role of reported tobacco-specific media exposure on adult attitudes towards proposed policies to limit the portrayal of smoking in movies.
  351. (2009). The role of the media in influencing children's nutritional perceptions.
  352. (1982). The TOWS matrix --- A tool for situational analysis.
  353. (2007). The United States' potential blood donor pool: Estimating the prevalence of donor-exclusion factors on the pool of potential donors.
  354. (2007). The use of focus groups in research into health. In:
  355. (1996). Theory and method in health audience segmentation.
  356. (2001). Theory and principles of media health campaigns. In:
  357. (2010). Theory-based approaches to understanding public emergency preparedness: Implications for effective health and risk communication.
  358. (2000). This is PR: The realities of public relations. 7 edn. CA:
  359. (2002). Thought-bubbles help children with autism acquire an alternative to a theory of mind.
  360. (2005). Tobacco-prevention messages online: Social marketing via the web.
  361. Tourism Authority of Thailand, 2003-2007a-last update, Population and occupation
  362. Tourism Authority of Thailand, 2003-2010b-last update,
  363. (1998). Transforming qualitative information: Thematic analysis and code development.
  364. (2001). Understanding audiences: Learning to use the media constructively. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  365. Understanding consumers' health information preferences: Development and validation of a brief screening instrument.
  366. (1964). Understanding media: The extensions of man.
  367. (1996). Understanding the audiences of a health communication campaign: A discriminant analysis of potential organ donors based on intent to donate.
  368. (2006). Understanding the donor can correct the nation's blood imbalance.
  369. (2003). Understanding the impact of synergy in multimedia communications.
  370. (2008). update, Blood safety and donation
  371. (2006). update, Buddhadasa with power in modern society:
  372. (2004). update, Case study methods
  373. (2007). update, Corporate social responsibility and public relations: Perceptions and practices
  374. (2001). update, Developing a media strategy
  375. (2004). update, Education, training, religion, culture and mass media
  376. (2007). update, Factors influencing blood donation behaviour
  377. (2009). update, Global blood safety and availability: Facts and figures from the
  378. (2008). update, National Blood Center: Historical background - organization chart and manpower - responsibilities [Homepage of Thai Red Cross Society],
  379. (1999). update, Redefining Thai values in the age of consumerism
  380. (2004). update, Sampling for research
  381. (2004). update, Table 4 Population from registration, area, density and house Bangkok:
  382. (2006). update, The changing value of Thai society: Keynote speech by Mr M R Pridiyathorn Devakula, Governor of the Bank of Thailand, at the ‘Horizon’s Night’,
  383. Use of focus groups to develop methods to communicate cardiovascular disease risk and potential for risk reduction to people with type 2 diabetes.
  384. (1997). Use of provocative emotional appeals in a mass media campaign designed to prevent smoking among adolescents.
  385. (2007). Uses and abuses of focus groups. In:
  386. (2003). Using focus groups in research.
  387. (2007). Using message framing to promote acceptance of the human papillomavirus vaccine.
  388. (2010). Validating a health consumer segmentation model: Behavioral and attitudinal differences in disease prevention-related practices.
  389. (1985). Vivid persuasion in the courtroom.
  390. (2000). Vividness can undermine or enhance message processing: The moderating role of vividness congruency.
  391. (1993). Vividness can undermine the persuasiveness of messages.
  392. (2007). What would encourage blood donation in Ireland? Vox Sanguinis,
  393. (2003). When a celebrity contracts a disease: The example of Earvin "Magic" Johnson's announcement that he was HIV positive.
  394. (2010). Who are the opinion leaders? The physicians, pharmacists, patients, and direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising.
  395. (2007). Why don't women volunteer to give blood? A study of knowledge, attitude and practice of women about blood donation,
  396. (2005). Why don't young people volunteer to give blood? An investigation of the correlates of donation intentions among young nondonors.
  397. (2001). Why we can't afford to measure viewers.
  398. (2009). Why would young people donate blood? A survey-based questionnaire study. Vox Sanguinis,
  399. (2008). Young citizens as health agents: Use of drama in promoting community efficacy for HIV/AIDS.
  400. (2010). Young women's responses to smoking and breast cancer risk information.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.