Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Entrepreneurs, Manufactories and Small Industrial Communities, 1850-1914

By Patrick John Crouch


The continuous industrialisation of Britain following the so called industrial revolution affected both large urban towns as well as small semi-urban communities. The financial advantages of mass production, during the second half of the nineteenth century, caused many manufacturing companies to be formed and various existing businesses grew to extensive sized firms.\ud The main purpose of this thesis is a comparative study into the development of four industrial company communities in four rural towns. Samuel Courtauld and Company at Halstead, and R. Hunt and Company at Earls Colne, both in north west Essex, D. Gurteen and Sons at Haverhill, south West Suffolk and Richard Garrett and Company at Leiston, East Suffolk. A holistic approach is taken, not only in the way the communities evolved into urbanised towns dominated by the companies’ entrepreneurs, but also how, by sheer entrepreneurial skills, these businessmen created extensive industrial international companies. Without the prosperity brought about by the success of their businesses, no company community could have been created. Thus the entrepreneurial skills of these family businessmen were critical to running their businesses and dominating their towns. The ‘family firm’ was the crucial element that drove the four case study entrepreneurs and the one that dictated many of their successful strategies and policies.\ud A thorough synthesis of the literature of company communities, nationwide, allowed these four study towns to be compared and contrasted to the mass of differing communities in size and character. One key research question, thrown up by this thesis, is whether small to medium sized company communities were distinctive or simply mimicked the characteristics of the larger and better known examples of Saltaire, Port Sunlight or Bourneville. Underlying this is the view that smaller companies have been neglected by historians and as a result may have been more common than is generally recognised

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 2010
OAI identifier:

Suggested articles


  1. (1999). (eds) An Historical Atlas of Suffolk,
  2. (1907). (eds) Victoria County history of the Counties of England,
  3. (2002). (revised by Radcliffe, Enid), The Buildings of England,
  4. 114, Earls Colne p. 144, Haverhill p. 362,
  5. (1901). 148, Earls Colne p. 147, Haverhill p. 385,
  6. (1970). 1891 census England and Wales. Area, housing and population.
  7. (1971). 618, Leiston p. 608. 1841 Irish University Press series of British Parliamentary Papers. Population 3. 1841 census Great Britain statement on populations, enumeration, abstracts and index to place names.
  8. 96, Earls Colne p. 97, Haverhill p. 319, Leiston p. 314. 1831 Abstracts of answers and returns. Enumeration abstracts.
  9. (2004). A ‘humbler, industrious class of female’ women’s employment and the small towns of southern England,
  10. (1996). A Clearer Sense of the Census: the Victorian Censuses and Historical Research (H.M.S.O.,
  11. (1999). A Comparative Study of Public Health in Wakefield, Halifax and Doncaster 1865-1914, Ph.D thesis (University of Cambridge,
  12. (1941). A History of Courtaulds, an Account of the Origin and rise of the Industrial Enterprise of Courtaulds Limited and of its Associate American Viscose Corporation (London,
  13. (1974). A History of Earls Colne (Earls Colne branch of the Workers’ Education Association,
  14. (2000). A Mining World: an Illustration of the Evolution of English Industry (Middlesbrough) Loftus, D., ‘Industrial conciliation, class and the urban landscape in mid-Victorian England,’
  15. (2003). A soft touch? British industry, Empire markets and the self- governing dominions, c 1870-1914,’ in Economic History Review,
  16. (2003). A soft touch? British industry, empire markets and the self-governing dominions, c1870-1914’,
  17. (1911). Accounts and Papers,
  18. (1914). Agricultural engineering and European markets before
  19. (1907). Agricultural implements,’
  20. (2004). Agriculture 1860-1914,’ in
  21. (1981). Agriculture during industrialisation,’
  22. (1986). Akroydon and West Hill Park: moral reform and social improvements in Halifax,’
  23. (1994). An innovation and its diffusion: the new draperies,’
  24. (1864). and Company’s Post and Commercial Directory of Suffolk...
  25. (1974). and the Industrial Revolution (Chelmsford,
  26. (1907). At the Works,
  27. (1977). Brick making in Haverhill about the year 1850,’ in,
  28. (1981). Britain 1860-1914: a survey’, in
  29. Britain between 1860-1914 a survey’ in Floud and McCloskey, Cambridge Economic History of Britain since 1700,
  30. (1974). British Entrepreneurship in the Nineteenth century (London,
  31. (1983). Building Control, National Legislation and the Introduction of Local Bye-Laws in Victorian
  32. (1965). Building Cycles and Britain’s Growth (London,
  33. (2001). Business networking in the industrial
  34. (2001). Business networking in the industrial Revolution,’
  35. (2000). Central government and the towns,’
  36. (1995). Cheapness and economy’: manufacturing and retailing ready-made clothing in London and
  37. (2003). Chelmsford during the industrial revolution c1790-1840’ in,
  38. (2007). Child Workers in England 1780-1820: Parish Apprentices and the Making of the Early Labour Force
  39. (2008). Chris Lambert to Patrick Crouch,
  40. (2000). Civilizing the Urban Popular Culture and Public Space
  41. (2000). Civilizing the Urban Popular Culture and Public Space in Merthr c1870-1914
  42. Company’s London and Provincial Commercial Directory for 1823-4...
  43. (1839). Company’s Royal Directory and Commercial Directory...
  44. (1994). Concentration and specialization in the Lancashire cotton industry, 1825-1850,’
  45. Consumer Influences on the life-cycle of Housing with Particular reference to the East of England,
  46. (2000). Copperopolis: landscapes of the early industrial period in Swansea (Royal commission of ancient and historical monuments,
  47. (1969). Courtaulds an Economic and Social History,
  48. (1969). Courtaulds, an Economic and Social History, vol. II
  49. (1980). Courtaulds, an Economic and Social History, vol. III
  50. (1974). Cruel Habitations: a History of Working-Class Housing
  51. (1974). Cruel habitations: a history of working-class housing 1780-1918
  52. (1994). De-industrialization and re-industrialization: women’s employment and the changing character of Colchester 1700-1850,’ in Urban History,
  53. (1996). Derby and the Midland Railway (Derby,
  54. District Council Water Rent Book 1900, EF 511/4/66 Suffolk Record Office,
  55. (1910). District Council, Treasurer’s Department Rate Book
  56. (1911). District p. 133, Haverhill Urban District p. 313, Leiston Cum Sizewell Urban District p.
  57. (1822). Earls Colne p. 102, Haverhill p. 231, Leiston p. 315. 1821 Populations viz enumeration and Parish Registers of Great Britain according to the census 1821.
  58. (1970). Earls Colne p. 201, Haverhill p. 410, Leiston p. 406. 1851 Irish University Press series of British Parliamentary Papers. Population 6. 1851 census
  59. (1883). Earls Colne p. 315, Haverhill p. 565, Leiston p.
  60. (2001). Earls Colne’,
  61. (2002). Eighteenth and nineteenth century market town industry: an analytical model.’
  62. (2002). Eighteenth and nineteenth century market town industry: an analytical model’,
  63. (1981). Employers, industrial housing and the evolution of company welfare policies in Britain’s heavy industry: West Scotland, 1870-1920’,
  64. (1968). English Agriculture in 1850-52,
  65. (2003). English industrial towns: rivals or partners?’ in Urban History,
  66. (1969). Essex at Work 1700-1815
  67. (1925). Essex sheet XXVII, north west,
  68. (1988). Farm workers: A Social and Economic History 1770-1980
  69. Finance Act (1909-10) Reference book, Cambridge Valuation District,
  70. (2000). finance and public health in Victorian Britain,’
  71. (1973). Five Percent Philanthropy: an Account of Housing in Urban Areas Between 1840-1914
  72. (1977). Forgotten Railways: East Anglia (Newton Abbot,
  73. (1978). Garrett 200 a Bicentenary of
  74. (1964). Garretts of Leiston (London,
  75. (1988). Gender-specific Demographic Adjustment to Changing Economic Circumstances: Colyton 1538-1837,
  76. General View of the Agriculture of the County of Suffolk (Board of Agriculture,
  77. (2000). Governance: two centuries of urban growth’,
  78. (1910). Gurteen and Haverhill. Daniel Gurteen III and his sons, throughout this period, truly stamped their authority on Haverhill. Hunt and Earls Colne.
  79. (1884). Haverhill Local Board of Health, Local Rate Book
  80. Haverhill’s industrial history’, South West Suffolk Echo,
  81. (1991). Heathcoat’s industrial housing in Tiverton, Devon,’
  82. (2004). Henry Greenwood Tetley,’
  83. (1874). History, Gazetteer and Directory of Suffolk...
  84. (1848). History, Gazetteer and Directory of the County of Essex
  85. History, Gazetteer and Directory of the County of Essex (London,
  86. (1974). Housing Estate Development 1840-1918, with Particular Reference to the Pennine Towns. Ph.D thesis
  87. (1996). Housing in the Rhonda 1800-1940
  88. (1989). Housing in Urban Britain,1780-1914
  89. (2000). Housing quality in rural textile colonies c1800-50: the Ashworth settlements revisited,’
  90. (1989). Housing the workforce: a case study of West Yorkshire, 1750-1900,
  91. (2004). Human capitals and skills,’
  92. (1995). Hunt for Machinery, the Rise and
  93. (1960). I want your solemn word to carry on the firm when I am gone: Fourth generation, John – they’ll look to you. They’re artist-craftsmen to their fingertips...’ John Betjeman, Summoned by Bells (London,
  94. (2003). Identity, competition and place promotion in the five towns,’
  95. (1986). Industrial housing in the West country,’
  96. (2000). Industrialisation and the city economy,’
  97. (1964). Industrialisation and the city economy’, in Daunton, Cambridge Urban History of Britain,
  98. (2002). Inheritance and the life-cycle of family firms in the early industrial revolution’,
  99. (2005). Institutional buildings in workers settlements’,
  100. (1996). Integration, innovation, and progress of a family cotton enterprise:
  101. (1997). Introduction, the development of the clothing industry: technology and fashion,’
  102. (1999). Iron foundries 1789-1900, in
  103. (2007). Iron Harvests of the Field’ the Making of Farm Machinery
  104. (1993). Iron Harvests of the Field’ the Making of Farm Machinery in Britain since
  105. (2008). Iron Harvests of the Field’: the Making of Farm Machinery
  106. (2008). Iron Harvests of the Field’: the Making of Farm Machinery in Britain since 1800
  107. Iron Works Heywood to Gurteen and
  108. (2007). Is speculative building underappreciated in urban history?’
  109. (1908). Kelly’s Directory of Cambridgeshire and
  110. (1900). Kelly’s Directory of Cambridgeshire,
  111. (1883). Kelly’s Directory of Cambridgeshire, Norfolk and Suffolk with
  112. (1916). Kelly’s Directory of the Counties of Cambridge,
  113. (1998). Landlord, cottages and ‘close’ parishes in Mid-Victorian Suffolk’, Suffolk Review, new series,
  114. (2004). London & North Western Railway Company Housing
  115. Long-run growth,’ in
  116. Manufacturing and technological change,’ in
  117. (1998). Manufacturing and Trade: the Urban Economies of the North Essex Cloth Towns c1770-1851, Ph.D thesis
  118. (2001). Market solutions for social problems: working-class housing in nineteenthcentury
  119. (2005). mere seekers of fame’? Personalities, power and politics in a small town: Pontypool and Bridgend, c1860-95.’
  120. (1996). Middlesborough: the growth of a new community,’
  121. (1980). Miners’ houses: South Wales and the Great Northern Coalfield’,
  122. (1907). Mixed textiles, (drabbit, horsehair, coconut fibre) and ready made Clothing,’
  123. (1986). Model housing from the Great Exhibition to the Festival of Britain,’
  124. (1913). Occupations (condensed list) of males and females aged ten years and upwards.
  125. (1846). Office Directory of Nine Counties,
  126. (2000). Ownership of the place of burial: a study of early nineteenth century urban conflict
  127. (1912). p. 243; Kelly’s Directory of Suffolk (1888), p. 992; Kelly’s Directory of Norfolk and Suffolk
  128. (1994). Paternalism as an employer strategy, 1800-1960,’
  129. Paternalism as an employer strategy, 1800-1960,’ in
  130. (2000). Patterns on the ground: urban form, residential structure and the social construction of space,
  131. (2000). Playing and praying,’
  132. Politics and Place in Suburban Walthamstow,
  133. (2000). Pollution in the city’,
  134. (1993). Population Estimates of English small Towns 1550-1851
  135. Populations viz Enumeration.... Census (1821), p. 314; Abstracts of answers and
  136. (1846). Post Office Directory of Nine Counties,
  137. (1910). Poverty a Study of Town Life
  138. (1970). pp 622, 636, 640, 650; Census of England and Wales... 1861 (London, 1862), pp 40 and 122; Irish University Press Series of B.P.P...
  139. (1970). Press series of British Parliamentary Papers. Population 16. 1871 census England and Wales. Preliminary report with tables, areas, housing and populations.
  140. (1994). Proto-industrialization: the first phase of the industrial process,
  141. (2001). Railway Derby’: occupational community, paternalism and corporate culture 1850-90,’ in Urban History,
  142. (2000). railway manufacture and repair,’
  143. (1995). Railway Town,
  144. Rate Book (1890), D/P 96/11/67. Halstead Urban District Council, Rate Book,
  145. (1986). Reflections on Saltaire’,
  146. (1994). Rural Housing: an Historical Approach (London, the Historical Association,
  147. (1912). Schools 1876 Originally built as a large Board School. Enlarged in 1906. In
  148. (1907). Silk throwing and silk weaving,’
  149. (1980). Silk weaving in Haverhill’ in,
  150. (1996). Singer in Britain: the diffusion of sewing machine technology and its impact on the clothing industry in the United Kingdom, 1860-1905,’ Textile History,
  151. (2004). Small town politics in mid-Victorian
  152. (1995). Small towns in England 1550-1850: national and regional population trends,
  153. (1995). Small towns in England 1550-1850: national and regional population trends’,
  154. Social history 1860-1914,’
  155. (1989). Social policy and business; parish apprentices and the early factory system 1750-1834,’
  156. (1972). Some features of the early merger movement
  157. (1999). State and Society a Political History of Britain 1870-1997
  158. (2000). Structure, culture and society in British towns,’
  159. (1928). Suffolk sheets LX north east and lx north west,
  160. (1960). Summoned by Bells (London,
  161. (2006). Survival in Suffolk, a History of East Anglia’s Textile and Clothing Industries,
  162. (1995). Swindon: the Legacy of a Railway Town (London,
  163. (1985). Tailoring the millions’; the women workers of the Leeds clothing industry, 1880-1914,’
  164. (1985). Tailoring the millions’; the women workers of the Leeds clothing industry, 1880-1914’, in,
  165. (2007). The Building of England,
  166. (2007). The Buildings of England,
  167. (1978). The buildings,
  168. (1978). The buildings, Eastwood’,
  169. (2003). The Cambridge Economic History
  170. (1981). The Cambridge Economic History of Britain since 1700, 2
  171. (2000). The changing functions of urban government: councillors, officials and pressure groups,’ in Daunton, M., The Cambridge Urban History of Britain, vol. III
  172. (1972). The cloth industry in East Anglia’,
  173. (1987). The Colne Valley &
  174. (1987). The Colne Valley and Halstead Railway (Headington, 2 nd edition,
  175. (1981). The coming of the mass market (London,
  176. (1968). The cotton industry,’
  177. (2000). The development of small towns
  178. (1967). The emergence of the large-scale company
  179. (1968). The engineering industries,’
  180. (1981). The entrepreneur and technological change,’ in
  181. The entrepreneur and technological change’,
  182. (1968). The entrepreneur and the British economy, 1870-1914,’ in Economic History Review, 2rd series,
  183. The European Rayon Industry in a ‘Deglobalising World’
  184. (1994). The family firm in British business, 1780-1914’ in,
  185. (1985). The go-between (London,
  186. (1983). The Great Paternalist: Titus Salt and the Growth of
  187. (1975). The Great Victorian Boom,
  188. (1975). The Great Victorian Boom, 1850-1873, (Economic History Society,
  189. (1986). The Gregs of Quarry Bank Mill: the Rise and Decline of a Family Firm 1750-1914
  190. (1986). The Gregs of Quarry Bank: the Rise and Fall of a Family Firm 1750-1914
  191. (1993). The growth of big business in the United States and Canada’
  192. (1993). The Growth of Big Business in the United States and Western Europe 1850-1939
  193. (1984). The Gurteens of Haverhill, Two Hundred Years of Suffolk Textiles
  194. (1962). The influence of railways on the growth of Wolverton,
  195. (1973). The initiation of mining settlement on the Cardiganshire ore fields’
  196. (1993). The innovating entrepreneurs in the British ready-made clothing Industry,’
  197. (1990). The levers of riches: technological creativity and economic progress
  198. (1975). The Local Historian’s Encyclopedia (Historical Publications,
  199. (2000). The middle classes,’
  200. The model village at Bromborough Pool,’ in The Town Planning Review,
  201. (1907). The new draperies, wool combing and spinning,’
  202. (1969). The new draperies, wool combing and spinning’,
  203. (2000). The political economy of urban utilities,’
  204. (2000). The provision of social services’,
  205. (1990). The Railway Surveyors,
  206. (1973). The South Shropshire lead mines,’
  207. (1973). The story of a family firm (Published by D.
  208. (1997). The structure of elite poor in the early twentieth city:
  209. (1850). The Survival of a Suffolk Manufacturer, Gurteens,
  210. (1996). The talk of the town: human capital, information and growth of English cities, 1861-1961,’
  211. (1996). The talk of the town: human capital, information and the growth of English cities, 1861-1961,’
  212. The trade cycle in Britain 1860-1914’,
  213. (1980). The triangle, Pentre, Merthyr Tydfil,
  214. (1986). The Unitarian Heritage: an Architectural Survey of Chapels and Churches in the Unitarian Tradition in the British Isles (Unitarian Heritage,
  215. (2000). The urban labour market,’
  216. (1999). The wool cloth industry’,
  217. (1999). The wool cloth industry’, in Dymond, David and Martin, Edward (eds) An Historical Atlas of Suffolk (Ipswich, 3 rd edition
  218. (1968). The woollen and worsted industries,’
  219. (1910). Three housing schemes’ Architectural Review
  220. (1996). Town wastes, agriculture sustainability and Victorian sewage.’
  221. (2003). Trade, 1870-1939: from globalisation to fragmentation,’ in
  222. (1994). transaction costs, and the transition to factory production in the British silk industry, 1700-1870,’
  223. (1977). Two Centuries of Industrial Welfare: the London (Quaker) Lead Company 1692-1905, (Hartington,Moorland Publishing Co.,
  224. (2005). Understanding the workplace: a research framework for industrial archaeology In
  225. (2000). Urban governance: some reflections,’
  226. (2000). Urban governance: some reflections,’ in
  227. (1973). Urban growth an approach (London,
  228. (1922). Valuation Lists (pre
  229. (1907). Victoria History Of the Counties of England,
  230. William Hesketh 1851-1925,’ in
  231. (1989). Window Vision (Crittall Windows,
  232. (1998). Windows of opportunity in the textile industry: the business strategies of Lancashire entrepreneurs, 1880-1914,’ in,
  233. (1990). Women and Urbanisation, Gender at Work in Nineteenth Century England (Cambridge,
  234. (1907). Woollen industry,’
  235. (1907). Woollen industry’,
  236. (1968). Workers housing in West Yorkshire 1750-1920 (Royal Commission of Historical Monuments, supplementary series 9,
  237. (2008). Workers’ housing in

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.