Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Rethinking Veblen’s contribution to Consumer Research: a phenomenological enquiry into the perception of ‘status consumption’ by middle-income British consumers

By Georgios Patsiaouras


The name of the American economist and social analyst Thorstein Veblen has been inextricably linked with the term “conspicuous consumption” referring to the competitive consumption practices and leisure activities that aim to indicate one’s membership in a superior social class. However, the ‘classical models’ of consumer behaviour face difficulty in accommodating and understanding the nature of conspicuous economic display and a serious study of Veblen’s arguments on the consumption practices of the ‘nouveau-riche’, non-utilitarian and status-directed behaviour has been noticeable only through its absence.\ud This Thesis suggests and encourages a rereading of Veblen’s The Theory of the Leisure Class through a critical examination about the adoption and discussion of his work.\ud Thereupon, it argues that although many marketing theorists and consumer researchers will be aware of some of the terminology popularized from his book, surprisingly little attention seems to have been paid to the substance of Veblen’s arguments and ideas. Also, via a series of existential phenomenological interviews and employment of vignettes, this study sought to draw broader conclusions about how ostentatious consumption activities and ‘status consumption’ are perceived nowadays by adult middle-income British consumers.\ud Overall, the findings suggested that the notion of ‘achieved status’ receives a more intangible and honorable connotation compared to the excessive features of luxurious products and services and participants’ accounts indicated that conformity and individual’s need for a socially acceptable identity can be viewed as the primary motivations behind conspicuous consumption practices. In conclusion, it is argued that negative connotations associated with ostentatious economic display necessitate the reappraisal of Veblen’s accounts about consumer’s rising expectations and desires together with further research as regards the ‘taboo’ and sensitive issue of upward social mobility via consumption

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 2010
OAI identifier:

Suggested articles


  1. (1989). A citation analysis of the
  2. (1994). A Conservative revolution? : the Thatcher - Reagan decade in perspective. Manchester:
  3. (1992). A consumer values orientation for materialism and its measurement-scale development and validation.
  4. (1989). A critical examination of the influence of institutional economics on the development of early marketing thought. in
  5. (1992). A History of Conspicuous Consumption.
  6. (2005). A history of schools of marketing thought.
  7. (2007). A model of motivated cognition to account for the link between self-monitoring and materialism.
  8. (1988). A naturalistic inquiry into buyer and seller behaviour at a swap meet.
  9. (1977). A new approach to market segmentation.
  10. (1954). A note on some experimental findings about the meaning of price.
  11. (1999). A review and a conceptual framework for prestigeseeking behaviour.
  12. (1991). A role-theoretical approach to product symbolismmapping a consumption constellation.
  13. (1954). A theory of social comparison processes.
  14. (1957). A theory of the consumption function.
  15. (1974). About behaviourism.
  16. (1981). Advances in social theory and methodology: toward an integration of micro- and macro- sociologies. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  17. (1976). Advertising myopia.
  18. (1995). Aesthetic aspects of the consumption of fashion design: the conceptual and empirical challenge.
  19. (2005). After Bourdieu: influence, critique, elaboration.
  20. (1988). Alternative ways of seeking knowledge in consumer research.
  21. (1952). American capitalism: the concept of countervailing power.
  22. (1992). An exploration of materialism and consumption related-affect.
  23. (1917). An Inquiry into the Nature of Peace and the Terms of its Perpetuation.
  24. (1992). An investigation into the social-context of early adoption behaviour.
  25. (1989). An over-extended self?
  26. (1877). Ancient Society. Cambridge Mass:
  27. (1881). Anthropology: an introduction to the study of man and civilization.
  28. (1964). Anti-intellectualism in American life. London: Cape
  29. (1998). Antony Giddens: the last modernist.
  30. (2002). Appreciating Veblen without idealizing or demonizing him.
  31. (1985). Are Americans becoming more materialistic? A look at changes in expressions of materialism in the popular literature of the post-World War II era.
  32. (1991). Assessing the influence of the Journal of Consumer Research: A Citation Analysis.
  33. (1997). Assessing the predictive validity of two methods of measuring selfimage congruence.
  34. (1957). Axioms and procedures for reconstructions in comparative linguistics: an experimental syllabus. Santa Ana, Calif.: Summer Institute of Linguistics Pine,
  35. (1968). Background of Veblen’s Thought
  36. (1950). Bandwagon, Snob and Veblen Effects in the Theory of Consumer Demand.
  37. (1978). Basic writings: from Being and Time
  38. (1998). Basics of qualitative research: techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory. 2nd ed. London: Sage
  39. (1994). Baudrillard and Signs: Signification Ablaze.
  40. (1964). Behaviorism and phenomenology: contrasting bases for modern psychology.
  41. (1965). Behavioural models for analyzing buyers.
  42. (1969). Being and nothingness: an essay on phenomenological ontology.
  43. (2005). Beyond incommensurability? Empirical expansion on diversity in research.
  44. (2005). Beyond the extended self: Loved objects and consumers’ identity narratives.
  45. (1989). Beyond Veblen
  46. (1994). Bill collectors and consumers: a troublesome exchange relationship.
  47. (2001). Brand Community.
  48. (1969). Broadening the concept of marketing.
  49. (2001). Camp as cultural capital: Further elaboration of a consumption taste.
  50. (1964). Capital, saving and credit in peasant societies:
  51. (1883). Capital: a critique of political economy. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books in association with
  52. (1971). Capitalism and modern social theory: an analysis of the writings of Marx, Durkheim and Max Weber. London:
  53. (1996). Caring consumers: gendered consumption meanings and the juggling lifestyle.
  54. (2007). Changing social class identities in post-ward Britain: Perspectives from mass-observation.
  55. (1990). Choose your own price- an exploratory- study requiring an expanded view on prices functions.
  56. (2003). Citizen consumers: New Labour’s marketplace democracy.
  57. (2007). Citizenship and consumption.
  58. (1996). Class and politics in advanced industrial societies. In
  59. (2008). Class and stratification.
  60. (1996). Class Counts: Comparative Studies in Class Analysis. New York:
  61. (2006). Colin Campbell on Thorstein Veblen on conspicuous consumption.
  62. (1987). Comparative history as a research tool in consumerbehaviour.
  63. (1989). Compulsive buying: a phenomenological exploration.
  64. (1979). Conceiving the self.
  65. (2004). Conflict and cooperation: institutional and behavioral economics.
  66. (1995). Conspicuous Confusion? A Critique of Veblen’s Theory of Conspicuous Consumption.
  67. (1984). Conspicuous consumption: a literature review.
  68. (1992). Consumer Behavior: Buying, Having and Being.
  69. (1999). Consumer behaviour and Y2K.
  70. (1968). Consumer behaviour.
  71. (1991). Consumer culture and postmodernism. London: Sage publications.
  72. (2005). Consumer Culture Theory: Twenty Years of Research.
  73. (1966). Consumer decision processes: marketing and advertising implications. Englewood Cliffs:
  74. (2002). Consumer health under the scope.
  75. (1986). Consumer research and semiotics: exploring the morphology of sings, symbols, and significance.
  76. (1999). Consumer research, interpretive paradigms, and methodological ambiguities.
  77. (2000). Consumer researchers: take a hike!
  78. (1967). Consumer self-concept, symbolism and marketing behaviour: a theoretical approach.
  79. (1997). Consumer, culture and modernity.
  80. (2003). Consumption and citizenship during the Second World War: product advertising in women’s magazines.
  81. (1998). Consumption and the Symbolic Project of the Self.
  82. (1977). Consumption patterns and macro-marketing: A radical perspective.
  83. (1991). Consumption responses to involuntary job loss.
  84. (1997). Consumption situations and the effects of brand image on consumers’ brand evaluations.
  85. (1993). Consumption.
  86. (2000). Containing America: cultural production and consumption in the Fifties America.
  87. (2000). Contemporary British Society.
  88. (2007). Cosmic society: towards a sociology of the Universe.
  89. (1916). Course in general linguistics.
  90. (2007). Creating citizen-consumers: changing publics and changing public services.
  91. (2005). Credit cards as lifestyle facilitators.
  92. (2008). Critical marketing: contemporary issues in marketing. Chichester:
  93. (1980). Critical theory and institutional economics.
  94. (2004). Cross-Cultural Consumer/consumption research: dealing with issues emerging from globalization and fragmentation.
  95. (2004). Crossing culture’: A multi-method enquiry into consumer behaviour and the experience of cultural transition.
  96. (1984). Cultural and historical differences in concepts of self and their effects on attitudes towards having and giving.
  97. (1986). Culture and consumption: a theoretical account of the structure and movement of the cultural meaning of consumer goods.
  98. (1988). Culture and consumption: new approaches to the symbolic character of consumer goods and activities.
  99. (1987). Culture as commodity-the marketing of cultural objects and cultural experiences.
  100. (1999). Customer value - A framework for analysis and research.
  101. (1984). Darwinian Evolution.
  102. (2008). Darwinian foundations for Evolutionary Economics.
  103. (1965). Development of Marketing Thought.
  104. (1982). Developmental recognition of consumption symbolism.
  105. (1979). Differences in consumer purchase behaviour by credit card payment system.
  106. (1984). Distinction: a social critique of the judgment of taste. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  107. (1997). Do brands benefit consumers?
  108. (2003). Do not go cheaply into that good night: Death-ritual consumption in Asante,
  109. (1998). Does Cultural Capital Structure American Consumption?
  110. (1983). Duesenberry and Veblen: the demonstration effect revisited.
  111. (2002). Economic sociology: state, market and society in modern capitalism.
  112. (1980). Economics and Consumer Behaviour. Cambridge:
  113. (1993). Economics and evolution: bringing life back to economics.
  114. (1988). Economics and Institutions: a manifesto for modern institutional economics.
  115. (1994). Economics of Sing and Space.
  116. (1968). Economy and society: an outline of interpretive sociology.
  117. (2009). Elements of a Neo-Veblenian theory of the individual.
  118. (2006). Entertainment marketing and experiential consumption.
  119. (1989). Ethnography: step by step.
  120. (1990). Eureka! And other tests of significance: a new look at evaluating interpretive research,
  121. (1971). Everyday life in modern world.
  122. (1966). Experimental study of consumer behaviour conformity and independence.
  123. (2001). Explorations in the sociology of consumption: fast food, credit cards and casinos.
  124. (2004). Exploring consumer status and conspicuous consumption.
  125. (2005). Extended self and possessions in the workplace.
  126. (1991). Extending innovation characteristic perception to diffusion channel intermediaries and aesthetic products.
  127. (1925). Fact and Metaphysics in Economic Psychology.
  128. (1904). Fashion.
  129. (2004). Ferdinand Tonnies, Thorstein Veblen and Karl Marx: From community to society and back?
  130. (1908). Fisher’s Capital and Income.
  131. (1909). Fisher’s Rate of Interest.
  132. (1989). From Corporatism to collective bargaining: organized labour and the eclipse of social democracy in Post-war era. In
  133. (2006). From labeling possessions to possessing labels: Ridicule and socialization amongst adolescents.
  134. (1996). Gifts: What do you buy the person who has nothing?
  135. (1996). Grand expectations: The United States,
  136. (2000). Greening Capitalism: Opportunities for a Green Commodity.
  137. (2005). Grounded theory, ethnography and phenomenology: A comparative analysis of three qualitative strategies for marketing research.
  138. (2002). Having, Being and Consumption.
  139. (2006). Heaven knows I’m miserable now.
  140. (2009). Hidden consumers in marketing – the neglect of consumers with scarce resources in affluent societies.
  141. (1993). Historical method in consumer research-developing casual explanations of change.
  142. (1980). Historical Research in Marketing.
  143. (2004). Hooked on growth: economic addictions and the environment.
  144. (2004). How brands become icons: the principles of cultural branding.
  145. (1942). How to pick a mate, the guide to a happy marriage.
  146. (1931). Ideas: general introduction to pure phenomenology.
  147. (2009). Identity, consumption and narratives of socialization.
  148. (2008). If I want you to like me, should I be like you or unlike you? The effect of prior positive interaction with a group of conformity and distinctiveness in consumer decision making.
  149. (1999). If We Are So Rich, Why Aren’t We Happy?
  150. (1996). Image congruence effects on product evaluations: the role of selfmonitoring and public/private consumption.
  151. (1972). Images of society: essays in the sociological theories of Tocqueville, Marx and Durkheim. London:
  152. (1915). Imperial Germany and the Industrial Revolution.
  153. (2007). In defense of consumer critique: revisiting the consumption debates of the twentieth century.
  154. (1999). In search of politics.
  155. (1949). Income, Saving and the Theory of Consumer Behaviour.
  156. (1999). Influence in the Evolving Citation Network of the Journal of Consumer Research,
  157. (1951). Influences on the development of marketing thought,
  158. (1934). Institutional Economics – Its Place in Political Economy.
  159. (1963). Institutional economics: Veblen, Commons, and Mitchell reconsidered: a series of lectures.
  160. (1960). Intelligence and Democratic Action. Cambridge Mass:
  161. (1995). Interpersonal effects on consumer demand in economic theory and marketing thought, 1890 –
  162. (2001). Interpreting the past, writing the future.
  163. (2005). Interpretive Practice and Social Action.
  164. (1975). Introduction to qualitative research methods: a phenomenological approach to the social sciences.
  165. (1978). Issues and advances in segmentation research.
  166. (2000). Jean Baudrillard in Ritzer, G., The Blackwell companion to major social theorists.
  167. (2007). John Kenneth Galbraith: his life, his politics, his economics.
  168. (2006). John Kenneth Galbraith: the economist as political theorist. Rowman and Littlefield Publishers.
  169. (1991). John Rae and Thorstein Veblen on conspicuous consumption: a neglected intellectual relationship.
  170. (2004). John Rae and Thorstein Veblen.
  171. (1884). Kant’s Critique on Judgement.
  172. (1992). Knowledge development and scientific status in consumer behaviour research: a social exchange perspective.
  173. (1995). Life begins at 40? Further thoughts on marketing's mid-life crisis",
  174. (1987). Lifestyle and consumer culture.
  175. (2009). Lifestyle conformity and lifecycle saving: a Veblenian perspective.
  176. (1984). Lifestyles and psychographics-a critical review and recommendation.
  177. (1888). Looking backward.
  178. (1992). Made in U.S.A: The secret histories of the things that made America.
  179. (1947). Man for Himself. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  180. (2006). Marketing and consumerism-A response to O’ Shaughnessy and O’ Shaughnessy.
  181. (2006). Marketing graffiti: the view from the street. Oxford : ButterworthHeinemann Saren et al.,
  182. (1995). Marketing in a Postmodern World.
  183. (1983). Marketing, scientific progress, and scientific method.
  184. (2010). Marketing: A Critical Textbook.
  185. (2000). Marx, Veblen and Contemporary Institutional Economy.
  186. (2002). Materialism and well-being: A conflicting values perspective.
  187. (1995). Materialism: origins and implications for personal wellbeing.
  188. (1985). Materialism: Trait aspects of living in the material world.
  189. (2004). Measuring perceptions of brand luxury.
  190. (1987). Media, materialism and human happiness.
  191. (1963). Methodology and Scores of Socioeconomic Status.
  192. (2004). Mills, and the Generic Ends of Life. Lanham, Md: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers.
  193. (1991). Modernity and identity: self and society in the late modern age.
  194. (1973). More on social class vs. income as correlates of buying behaviour.
  195. (2000). More: the politics of economic growth in postwar America.
  196. (1957). Motivation in Advertising.
  197. (1957). Motivation Research and Marketing Management.
  198. (1958). Motivation, cognition, learning basic factors in consumer behaviour.
  199. (1990). Motivations and symbolism in gift-giving behaviour.
  200. (1988). My favourite things – a cross cultural inquiry into object attachment, possessiveness and social linkage.
  201. (2004). New clothing: meaning and practices.
  202. (1936). Notes on the measurement of consumers’ attitudes.
  203. (1994). Object-subject interchangeability- a symbolic interactionist model of materialism.
  204. (1995). Observations: Understanding the world of international luxury brands: The ‘dream formula’.
  205. (2006). Of Diamonds and Desires: Understanding Conspicuous Consumption from a Contemporary Marketing Perspective.
  206. (1983). On becoming a 10-speed bike owner.
  207. (1986). On method in consumer research: a critical relativist perspective.
  208. (1994). On rethinking marketing: Our discipline, our practice, our methods.
  209. (1859). On the Origin of Species by means of natural selection: or the Preservation of favoured races in the struggle of life. London:
  210. (1988). On the scientific status of consumer research and the need for an interpretive approach of studying consumption behavior.
  211. (1984). On the use and abuse of Thorstein Veblen in modern American Sociology II: Daniel Bell and the “Utopianizing” of Veblen’s contribution and its integration by Robert Merton
  212. (1968). One dimensional man.
  213. (2006). Paradigm Peace and the implication for quality.
  214. (1981). Patterns of consumer learning.
  215. (1954). People of plenty: abundance and the American character. Chicago:
  216. (1955). Personal influence: the part played by people in the flow of mass communications. Glencoe Ill:
  217. (1998). Personal taste and family face: Luxury consumption in Confucian and Western societies.
  218. (2002). Personality and values based materialism: their relationship and origins,
  219. (1985). Phenomenological analysis of the importance of special possessions: an exploratory study.
  220. (1991). Phenomenology in the Concise Encyclopedia of Western Philosophy
  221. (1962). Phenomenology of perception.
  222. (1998). Phenomenology, ethnomethodology, and interpretive practice. in
  223. (1881). Physics and politics: or thoughts on the application of the principles of “natural selection” and “inheritance” to political society. London: Kegan Paul.
  224. (1988). Possessions and the extended self.
  225. (1992). Postmodern consumer research: the study of consumption as text.
  226. (1997). Poststructuralist lifestyle analysis: Conceptualizing the social patterning of consumption in post-modernity.
  227. (1994). Practical Reason: on the theory of action.
  228. (1997). Prelude to a theory of homo absurdus: variations on themes from Thorstein Veblen and Jean Baudrillard.
  229. (1976). Prestige or socioeconomic scales in the study of occupational achievement?
  230. (1973). Price reliance-existence and sources.
  231. (2005). Pricing of conspicuous goods: A competitive analysis of social effects.
  232. (1903). Primitive culture: researches into the development of mythology, philosophy, religion, language, art and custom. 4rth ed.
  233. (1956). Product differentiation and market segmentation as alternative marketing strategies.
  234. (1951). Psychological Analysis of Economic Behaviour.
  235. (1960). Psychological dimensions of consumer decision.
  236. (1944). Psychology in selling.
  237. (1988). Public self-consciousness and consumption behaviour.
  238. (1996). Qualitative Research Practice in Adult Education.
  239. (1953). Rational Behavior and Economic Behavior.
  240. (1958). Rationality and Irrationality in Motivation Research’,
  241. (1978). Reflections on behaviourism and society. London: Prentice-Hall Smith, A., (1776/1999) The wealth of nations.
  242. (1982). Relating television preference viewing to shopping orientations, life styles and demographics: the examination of perceptual and preference dimensions of television programming.
  243. (2006). Remembering motivation research: toward an alternative genealogy of interpretive consumer research.
  244. (2008). Rest in peace? Brand induced mortality salience and consumer behaviour.
  245. (1998). Rethinking Marketing: toward critical marketing accountings.
  246. (1896). Review of Karl Marx’s ‘Misere de la Philosophie’,
  247. (1899). Review of the Theory of the Leisure Class.
  248. (2003). Revisiting Consumption experience.
  249. (2003). Scholarly Research in Marketing: Exploring the “4 Eras” of thought development.
  250. (1990). Secular immortality and the American ideology of affluence.
  251. (1982). Self-concept in consumer behaviour: A Critical Review.
  252. (1974). Self-concept, ideal self concept, and consumer purchase intentions.
  253. (2005). Self-construal, reference groups, and brand meaning.
  254. (1975). Self-presentation: Managing the impression of consistency when reality interferes with self-enhancement.
  255. (2005). Selling the dream: why advertising is good business.
  256. (1981). Sensory and noetic consciousness: psychology from an empirical standpoint.
  257. (2000). Sequential choice in group settings: taking the road less traveled and less enjoyed.
  258. (2003). Shoes and self.
  259. (1964). Social anthropology.
  260. (1949). Social class in America: a manual of procedure for the measurement of social status. Chicago: Science Research Associates.
  261. (1972). Social class or income?
  262. (1981). Social class versus income revisited: an empirical investigation.
  263. (1994). Social class, occupational status, occupational self-direction, and job income: A cross-national examination.
  264. (1958). Social classes and spending behaviour.
  265. (1955). Social Darwinism in American Thought. Revised end,
  266. (1914). Social Economics. London: George Allen and Unwin.
  267. (1999). Social loading and sustainable consumption.
  268. (2006). Social research methods: qualitative and quantitative approaches.
  269. (1974). Social structure and political theory.
  270. (1957). Social theory and social structure.
  271. (1990). Sociological Theory: Classical Statements. 2nd ed.
  272. (1891). Some Neglected Points in the Theory of Socialism,
  273. (1997). Speaking of Fashion: Consumers’ uses of fashion discourses and the appropriation of countervailing cultural meanings.
  274. (1834). Statement of Some New Principles on the Subject of Political Economy: Exposing the Fallacies of the System of Free Trade,
  275. (2008). Status and conspicuousness – are they related? Strategic marketing implications for luxury brands.
  276. (2002). Status brands: examining the effects of non-product related brand associations on status and conspicuous consumption.
  277. (1974). Status consciousness vs. status position – marketing implications.
  278. (1981). Stratification in consumer behaviour research: a Reexamination.
  279. (1963). Structural anthropology.
  280. (1976). Structuralism in sociology: an approach to knowledge.
  281. (1995). Subcultures of consumption: an ethnography of new bikers.
  282. (2000). Subjective well-being: the science of happiness.
  283. (1939). Suggestions of Keynes in the writings of Veblen.
  284. (1997). Suppose that you own the world and no one knows? Conspicuous consumption, materialism and the self.
  285. (1959). Symbols for sale.
  286. (1951). Symbols of Class Status.
  287. (1997). Temerarious directions for marketing.
  288. (1949). The Accursed Share (trans. Hurley,
  289. (1961). The achieving society.
  290. (1957). The American class structure.
  291. (1986). The anthropology of experience.
  292. (1899). The Barbarian Status of Women.
  293. (1993). The barbarian temperament: toward postmodern critical theory.
  294. (1898). The Beginnings of Ownership.
  295. (1918). The Behavioristic Man.
  296. (2003). The Blank Slate: the modern denial of human nature.
  297. (2008). The Collective Amnesia of Marketing Scholars regarding Consumers’ Biological and Evolutionary Roots.
  298. (1992). The consciousness of addiction: toward a general theory of compulsive consumption.
  299. (1990). The consequences of modernity.
  300. (1991). The Consumer in Postmodernity.
  301. (2003). The consumer society and the postmodern city.
  302. (1996). The consumer society: Frontier Issues in Economic Thought.
  303. (2004). The consumerist syndrome in contemporary society: an interview with Zygmunt Bauman.
  304. (1999). The contextual stance.
  305. (1983). The continuing significance of social class to marketing.
  306. (1991). The culture industry: selected essays on mass culture.
  307. (1990). The Darwinian Evolutionary Perspectives of Engels and Veblen.
  308. (1994). The death of economics.
  309. (1871). The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex. London:
  310. (1997). The desire for unique consumer products: A new individual differences scale.
  311. (1962). The Development of Marketing Thought.
  312. (1998). The early American style: A history of marketing and consumer values.
  313. (1998). The Economics of Conspicuous Consumption: Theory and Thought since 1700.
  314. (1921). The Engineers and the Price System.
  315. (2004). The Evolution of Institutional Economics: Agency, Structure and Darwinism in American Institutionalism. London and
  316. (2005). The evolution of qualitative research in consumer behaviour.
  317. (2006). The evolution of the empowered consumer.
  318. (1908). The Evolution of the Scientific Point of View,
  319. (1989). The excitement of getting a bargain- some hypotheses concerning the origins and effects of smart –shopper lifters.
  320. (1989). The fate of meaning: Charles Pierce, structuralism, and literature.
  321. (2003). The fire of desire: a multisided inquiry into consumer passion.
  322. (1998). The foundations of social research: meaning and perspective in the research process.
  323. (1979). The founding fathers of social science.
  324. (1996). The Fragmentation of Class Analysis.
  325. (1999). The Frankfurt School and the problem of social rationality in Thorstein Veblen.
  326. (1996). The function of luxury: A situational approach to exclusionism.
  327. (1936). The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money.
  328. (1923). The golden bough: a study in magic and religion. 3rd ed.
  329. (1950). The Great Gatsby. Harmondsworth: Penguin Fitzgerald, K.,
  330. (1957). The Hidden Persuaders.
  331. (1918). The Higher Learning in America: a memorandum on the conduct of universities by business men.
  332. (2004). The importance of being Ernest: commemorating Dichter’s contribution to Advertising Research.
  333. (2001). The individualized society.
  334. (1919). The Industrial System and the Captains of Industry.
  335. (1992). The influence of familial and peer-based reference groups on consumer decisions.
  336. (1898). The instinct of workmanship and the irksomeness of labour.
  337. (1914). The instinct of workmanship and the state of the industrial arts.
  338. (2008). The institutions of the market: organizations, social system and governance.
  339. (1973). The interpretation of cultures.
  340. (1976). The joyless economy: an inquiry into human satisfaction and consumer dissatisfaction. London:
  341. (1990). The lived meaning of free choice: An existential-phenomenological description of everyday consumer experiences of contemporary married women.
  342. (1961). The lonely crowd: a study of the changing American character.
  343. (2003). The marketing of luxury goods: An exploratory study.
  344. (2004). The McDonaldization of society.
  345. (1981). The meaning of things: domestic symbols and the self. Cambridge:
  346. (1975). The mirrors of production.
  347. (1971). The New Industrial State. 2nd ed.
  348. (1999). The new politics of consumption: why Americans want so much more than they need. Boston Review, Summer Issue,
  349. (2006). The ordering of marketing theory: the influence of McCarthyism and the Cold War.
  350. (2008). The past is a foreign country: amnesia and marketing theory.
  351. (1900). The philosophy of money. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  352. (1948). The portable Veblen.
  353. (1996). The Postmodern Explained to Managers: Implications for Marketing.
  354. (1956). The power elite.
  355. (1900). The Preconceptions of Economic Science.
  356. (1959). The presentation of self in everyday life.
  357. (1930). The Protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism. London:
  358. (2005). The quality of price as a quality cue.
  359. (1983). The role of products as social stimuli: a symbolic interactionism perspective.
  360. (1987). The Romantic Ethic And The Spirit Of Modern Consumerism.
  361. (1989). The Sacred and the Profane in Consumer Behaviour: Theodicy in on the Odyssey.
  362. (1986). The semiology of cinematic consumptionsymbolic consumer behaviour in out of Africa.
  363. (2005). The service dominant logic of marketing: dialog, debate and directions.
  364. (1961). The Significance of Social Stratification in Selling.
  365. (1971). The social construction of reality: a treatise in the sociology of knowledge.
  366. (1941). The social life in a modern community. New Haven:
  367. (1986). The social life of things: commodities in cultural perspective. Cambridge:
  368. (1897). The Social Organization and Secret Societies of the Kwakiutl Indians. U.S. Government Printing Office: Coyote Press facsimile reprint.
  369. (1992). The social psychology of material possessions: to have is to be. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
  370. (1991). The social self on being the same and different at the same time.
  371. (2002). The social-psychological bases of anticonsumption attitudes.
  372. (1906). The Socialist Economics of Karl Marx and his Followers.
  373. (1971). The speaking tree: a study of Indian culture and society. London:
  374. (2009). The specificity of luxury management: turning marketing upside down.
  375. (1959). The status seekers: an exploration of class behavior in America. Longmans.
  376. (1968). The system of objects.
  377. (1969). The theory of buyer behaviour. John Willey and sons:
  378. (1987). The Theory of Human Nature.
  379. (1899). The Theory of the Leisure Class: an economic study of institutions.
  380. (1999). The use of vignettes in qualitative research.
  381. (1925). The Utility Concept in Value Theory and its Critics.
  382. (1985). The utopian vision of Edward Bellamy and Thostein Veblen.
  383. (1919). The Vested Interests and the Common Man.
  384. (1970). The way of phenomenology: criticism as philosophical discipline.
  385. (1992). The way we never were: American families and the nostalgia trap.
  386. (1897). The Will to Believe and other essays in popular philosophy.
  387. (1979). The world of goods: towards an anthropology of consumption. London:
  388. (1953). The worldly philosophers: the lives, times and ideas of the great economic thinkers.
  389. (1982). Theoretical logic in sociology/the antinomies of classical thought: Marx and Durkheim. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  390. (1985). Things of heaven and earth: phenomenology, marketing and consumer research.
  391. (2009). Thinking ‘Communities of Academic Practice’: on space, enterprise and governance in marketing academia.
  392. (1934). Thorstein Veblen and his America.
  393. (1992). Thorstein Veblen and his critics, 1891-1963: conservative, liberal and radical perspectives.
  394. (1982). Thorstein Veblen and his socialist contemporaries: a critical comparison.
  395. (1992). Thorstein Veblen and post-Darwinian economics.
  396. (2007). Thorstein Veblen and the Enrichment of Evolutionary Naturalism.
  397. (1975). Thorstein Veblen and the institutionalists: a study in social philosophy of economics. London: Macmillan [for] the London School of Economics and Political Science.
  398. (1989). Thorstein Veblen as the First Professor of Marketing Science.
  399. (2003). Thorstein Veblen on culture and society.
  400. (1953). Thorstein Veblen: a critical interpretation.
  401. (1968). Thorstein Veblen: the Carleton College Veblen seminar essays.
  402. (1999). Thorstein Veblen: theorist of the leisure class.
  403. (1995). Thorstein Veblen. with a new introduction by Stjepan Mestrovic.
  404. (1995). To be and not to be: lifestyle imagery, reference groups, and the clustering of America.
  405. (2007). To have is to be? A critique of self-creation through consumption.
  406. (1978). To Have or to Be?
  407. (2002). Tourism: between place and performance.
  408. (2003). Toward a cultural theory of class consumption: The social construction of the Turkish hand-knitted sweater.
  409. (1993). Toward formalizing fashion theory.
  410. (1990). Truth in marketing theory and research.
  411. (1995). Understanding classical sociology, Marx, Weber and Durkheim.
  412. (1995). Understanding the Socialized Body: A Poststructuralist Analysis of Consumers' Self-Conceptions, Body Images, and Self-Care Practices.
  413. (1985). Using self-congruity and ideal congruity to predict purchase motivation.
  414. (1976). V was for victory: politics and American culture during World War II.
  415. (1994). Valuing things: the public and private meanings of possessions.
  416. (1994). Vance Packard and American Social Criticism. Chapel Hill:
  417. (1982). Variety seeking behaviour - an interdisciplinary review.
  418. (2009). Veblen and Darwin: tracing the evolutionary roots of consumer research.
  419. (2004). Veblen and Darwinism.
  420. (1984). Veblen and Kropotkin on Human Evolution.
  421. (2001). Veblen in perspective: his life and thought.
  422. (1986). Veblen on Scientific Creativity: The Influence of Charles
  423. (2001). Veblen, Bourdieu and conspicuous consumption.
  424. (2005). Veblen’s “Instinct of Workmanship”, it cognitive foundations, and some implications for economic theory.
  425. (1941). Veblen’s attack on culture.
  426. (1957). Veblenism: a new critique.
  427. (1999). Visions and revisions of Neo-Classical economics: Veblenian Perspectives.
  428. (2006). What are Institutions?
  429. (1955). What are the Real Reasons People Buy.
  430. (1979). What computers can’t do: the limits of artificial intelligence. Cambridge: Harper and Row.
  431. (1986). What forces shape the future of advertising research?
  432. (1987). What is Consumer Research?
  433. (2001). When conspicuous consumption becomes inconspicuous: the case of the migrant Hong Kong consumers.
  434. (2007). Where (who) are collectives in collectivism? Toward conceptual clarification of individualism and collectivism.
  435. (1951). White collar the American middle classes.
  436. (1998). Why are we seduced by luxury brands?
  437. (2002). Why do brands cause trouble? A dialectic theory of consumer culture and branding.
  438. (1898). Why is economics not an evolutionary science?
  439. (1997). Why media matter: Toward a richer understanding of consumers’ relationships with Advertising and Mass Media.
  440. (1991). Why we buy what we buy- a theory of consumption values.
  441. (1957). Women and Department Store Advertising. Chicago: Social Research.
  442. (1998). Work, consumerism and the new poor.
  443. (1986). Yuppies as arbiters of the emerging consumption style.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.