Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Gender and ethnic labour market differentials in Britain. An analysis using the 1998 Workplace Employee Relations Survey

By Nikolaos Theodoropoulos


This Thesis consists of six Chapters.\ud Chapter I provides an overview of the economic theories of discrimination,\ud summarises the existing empirical work with respect to gender and ethnicity wage\ud differentials, presents a discussion on equal opportunities policies, and highlights the\ud merits of matched employer-employee data in explaining labour market differentials.\ud Chapter 2 explains the design of the data, examines and interprets variables of\ud interest and thoroughly looks at five aspects of the data that are of relevance to the\ud Thesis.\ud Chapter 3 focuses on firm-specific gender and ethnicity pay differentials. The\ud empirical estimation reveals significant gender and ethnic pay gaps. A striking finding of\ud this Chapter is that the firm-specific effects although significant and sizeable are not\ud correlated with other variables that may act as indirect indicators of pay differentials.\ud Chapter 4 focuses on gender and ethnicity job satisfaction differentials. We\ud find that women are more satisfied than men in relation to four different aspects of job\ud satisfaction (influence over the job, amount of pay, sense of achievement and respect\ud from supervisors). An interesting difference with respect to the female results is that\ud ethnic minority workers although are more satisfied than white employees with the\ud influence, achievement and respect they get from their jobs are not satisfied with pay.\ud Chapter 5 focuses on gender and ethnicity differentials relating to the receipt\ud of employer provided off-the-job training. Female employees have a significantly\ud higher probability of training incidence than men. This differential disappears when\ud we include a measure of workplace segregation. There is no significant gender\ud differential upon training intensity. Ethnic minority employees face a significant\ud disadvantage only with respect to the incidence of training. We also find that equal\ud opportunities policies have a positive and significant impact only on female\ud employees.\ud Chapter 6 concludes by reviewing the Thesis, providing policy implications\ud and setting up the agenda for future work

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 2006
OAI identifier:

Suggested articles


  1. 1). Continuous versus episodic change: The impact of civil rights policy on the economic status of blacks,
  2. 1). Skill biased technological change? Evidence from a panel of British and French establishments,
  3. A (2004a). Training and the new minimum wage,
  4. A (2004b). Training in
  5. (1997). A case for happiness, cardinalism, and interpersonal comparability,
  6. (2001). A clue to the paradox of happiness,
  7. (1982). A computationally efficient quadrature procedure for the one factor multinomial. probit model,
  8. (2003). A cross-section analysis of the faimess-of-pay perceptions of UK employees,
  9. (2004). A dynamic theory of statistical discrimination, available from http: //I)ost. economics. harvard. edu/facultý/frler/pal2ers. /fryer dtheory. ndf
  10. (1959). A formal interpretation of the theory of relative deprivation,
  11. (2004). A general equilibrium model of statistical discrimination,
  12. (2001). A hierarchical theory of occupational segregation and wage discrimination,
  13. (1986). A language theory of discrimination,
  14. (1995). A life-span theory of control.
  15. (1992). A longitudinal investigation of interest congruence and gender concentration as predictors of job satisfaction,
  16. (2000). A market taste for discrimination in the English professional soccer leagues,
  17. (1996). A meta-analysis and review of organisational research on involvement,
  18. (1984). A method for minimising the impact of Distributional assumptions in econometric models for duration data,
  19. (2002). A new approach to estimate the wage returns to work-related training,
  20. (2002). A picture of job insecurity facing British men,
  21. (2002). A pollution theory of discrimination: Male and female differences in occupations and earnings,
  22. (1995). A re-examination of the relationship between trade union membership and job satisfaction,
  23. (2002). A simple statistical method for measuring how life events affect happiness, International Journal ofEpidemiology, forthcoming
  24. (2003). A sticky floors model of promotion, pay and gender,
  25. (2001). A supply and demand model of co-worker, employer and customer discrimination,
  26. (1994). A theoretical model of on-the-job training with imperfect competition,
  27. (1957). A theory of cognitive dissonance,
  28. (1999). A theory of fairness, competition and cooperation,
  29. (1954). A theory of social comparison processes,
  30. (1974). A theory of social interactions,
  31. (1991). A treatise on the family.
  32. (1991). a). Five reasons why wages vary among employers,
  33. (2001). a). Random effects ordered probit,
  34. (1996). Acquiring skills: Market failures, their symptoms and policy responses,
  35. (2005). Affirmative action and its mythology,
  36. (1992). Age and occupational well-being,
  37. (2004). Agglomeration effects on employer provided training: Evidence from the UK, IZI Discussion Paper 1055.
  38. (2003). An analysis of the determinants of job satisfaction when individuals' baseline satisfaction levels may differ.
  39. (1999). An equilibrium search model with co-worker discrimination,
  40. (1997). An equilibrium search-matching model of discrimination,
  41. (1986). An exogeneity test for the simultaneous Tobit model,
  42. (2001). An overview of trends in social and economic well-being, by race, in America becoming: Racial trends and their consequences,
  43. (1996). Anti-discrimination law in Britain, 3 rd edition. London: Sweet and Maxwell.
  44. (1984). Antidiscrimination or reverse discrimination: The impact of changing demographics, Title VII and Affirmative Action on productivity,
  45. (2003). Approval of equal rights and gender differences in well-being, mimeo,
  46. (1996). Are "overpaid" workers really unhappy? a test of the theory of cognitive dissonance,
  47. (1999). Are Affirmative Action hires less qualified? Evidence from employer-employee survey data,
  48. (2003). Are Emily and Greg more employable than Lakisha and Jamal? A field experiment evidence on labor marker discrimination, NBER Working Paper No.
  49. (2000). Assessing affirmative action,
  50. (1992). Asymmetric tournaments, equal opportunity laws and affirmative actions: Some experimental results,
  51. (2001). Attitudes to ethnic minorities, ethnic context and location decisions,
  52. (2002). Bayesian learning and gender segregation,
  53. (1999). Beyond Becker: Training in imperfect labour markets,
  54. (1978). Biased screening and discrimination in the labour market,
  55. (1989). Black economic progress after Mydral,
  56. (1984). Black-white differences in self-esteem: Are they affected by response styles?
  57. (1999). Bringing the firin back in,
  58. (1999). Britain at work: As depicted by the
  59. (1998). Britain's ethnic communities, in
  60. (2003). Catching up: Wages of black men,
  61. (2000). Caught in a trap? Wage mobility in Great Britain:
  62. (2000). Changes in fertility patters,
  63. (2000). Changes in relative wages in the 1980s: Returns to observed and unobserved skills and black-white wage differentials,
  64. (1992). Changes in relative wages, 1963-1987: Supply and demand factors,
  65. (1998). Changes in the determinants of employer-funded training for falltime employees
  66. (2002). Changes in the distribution of male and female wages accounting for employment composition, IFS discussion paper,
  67. (2004). Changes in the functional structure of firms and the demand for skill,
  68. (1987). Changes in the industrial distribution of female employment
  69. (1999). Changes in unemployment and the demand for skills,
  70. (1988). Chi-square diagnostic tests for econometric models: Theory, Econometrica 56,1419-1453. Antecol, H. (200 1). Why is there interethnic variation in the gender wage gap? The role of cultural factors,
  71. (1997). College women look to the past,
  72. (1998). Comparison-concave utility and following behaviour in social and economic settings,
  73. (1989). Consumer discrimination and self-employment,
  74. (2001). Continuous training in Germany,
  75. (2000). Correlates of training: An analysis using both employer and employee characteristics,
  76. (1996). Creativity in context.
  77. (2004). Crossing the tracks? More on trends in the training of male and female workers in Great Britain,
  78. (1996). Culture, information and screening discrimination,
  79. (1998). Customer discrimination and employment outcomes for minority workers,
  80. (1990). Customer racial discrimination in the market for memorabilia: The case of baseball,
  81. (1997). Decomposing wage residuals: Unmeasured skill or statistical artifact?
  82. (1997). Delayed formal on the job training,
  83. (1998). Detecting discrimination,
  84. (1998). Discrimination and job uncertainty,
  85. (2002). Discrimination and skill differences in an equilibrium search model,
  86. (1992). Discrimination at work. London: Legal Action Group. 2 nd Edition.
  87. (2001). Discrimination in a segmented society: An experimental approach,
  88. (1995). Discrimination in an equilibrium search model,
  89. (2004). discrimination in pay,
  90. (1998). Discrimination in the Post-Civil Rights em: Beyond market interactions,
  91. (1996). Discrimination, Bayesian updating of employers' beliefs, and human capital accumulation,
  92. (1982). Discrimination, nepotism, and long-run wage differentials,
  93. (1987). Discrimination: Evidence from the United States, American Economic Review (Papers and
  94. (1985). Discriminatory, status-based wages among tradition-oriented stochastically trading coconut producers,
  95. (1998). Dividing the costs and returns to general training,
  96. (1999). Do individuals try to maximise general satisfaction?
  97. (2001). Do people mean what they say? Implications for subjective survey data, American Economic Review (Papers and
  98. (1999). Do quits cause under-training?
  99. (1996). Do some employers share the costs and benefits of general training?
  100. (1993). Do workers accurately perceive gender wage discrimination?
  101. (1999). Do workers pay for on-the-job training.
  102. (1996). Does anybody who works here looks like me? Mortgage lending, race and lender employment,
  103. (1974). Does economic growth improve the human lot? some empirical evidence,
  104. (1999). Does more mean less? The male/female wage gap and the proportion of females at the establishment level,
  105. (2004). Does wage rank affect employees' wellbeing? Discussion Paper,
  106. (1999). Earnings, productivity and performance-related pay,
  107. (2000). Econometric analysis. Fourth edition,
  108. (1986). Econometric models based on count data: Comparisons and applications of some estimators and tests,
  109. (1977). Economic aspects of job satisfaction, in
  110. (2000). Economic imperialism.
  111. (1988). Economic recession and mental health: Some conceptual issues,
  112. (2000). Economics and identity,
  113. (2001). Educational mismatches versus skill mismatches: Effects on wages, job satisfaction and on-the-job search,
  114. (1998). Emotions and economic theory,
  115. (1989). Empirical evidence on private training.
  116. (2000). Employee participation and equal opportunities practices: Productivity effects and potential complementarities,
  117. (2001). Employer learning and statistical discrimination,
  118. (1991). Employer size and on the job training decisions.
  119. (1987). Employer size: The implications for search, training, capital investment, starting wages and wage growth.
  120. (1998). Employer's discriminatory behaviour and the estimation of wage discrimination,
  121. (1999). Employment equity programs and the job search outcomes of men and women: Actual and perceived effects,
  122. (1988). Equal Opportunities Commission
  123. (1999). Equal opportunities in retrospect and prospect,
  124. (2004). Equal opportunities policy and practice in Britain: Evaluating the 'empty shell' hypothesis, Work Employment and Society
  125. (2001). Equal pay for equal work? Evidence from Sweden and a comparison with Norway and the US,
  126. (1996). Equal worth, equal opportunities: Pay and promotion in an internal labour market,
  127. (2002). Equilibrium wage dispersion with worker and employer heterogeneity,
  128. (2001). Equilibrium wage dispersion, firm size, and growth,
  129. (1990). Establishment size, job satisfaction and the structure of work,
  130. (2001). Estimates of the effects of wages on job satisfaction, Centrefor Economic Performance, Discussion Paper 531.
  131. (1998). Estimation of serniparametric censored regression models: An application to changes in black-white earnings inequality during the 1960s,
  132. (2000). Ethnic and other minority representation in UK academic economics,
  133. (1999). Ethnic differences in British employerfunded on and off-the-j ob training,
  134. (1999). Ethnic differences in the incidence and determinants of employer funded training in Britain,
  135. (2004). Ethnic minorities and equal treatment: The impact of gender, equal opportunities policies and trade unions,
  136. (2006). Ethnic minority immigrants and their children in
  137. (1998). Ethnic wage differences in Malaysia: Parametric and semiparametric: Estimation of the Chinese-Malay wage gap,
  138. (2002). Ethnicity, language, and workplace segregation: Evidence from a new matched employer-employee data set. NBER Working Paper no. 9037:
  139. (1999). Evaluating the effect of antidiscrimination law using a regression discontinuity approach,
  140. (1998). Evidence on discrimination in employment: Codes of color, codes of gender,
  141. (1999). Evidence on the employer-size wage premium from worker establishment matched data, Review ofEconomics and Statistics
  142. (1998). Exploring models for employee satisfaction-with a particular reference to a police force,
  143. (2002). Field experiments of discrimination in the market place,
  144. (1977). Fimi-specific evidence on racial wage differentials and workforce segregation,
  145. (2005). Firm-specific gender and ethnicity pay differentials
  146. (1981). Firm-specific human capital as a shared investment,
  147. (2003). Firm-specific human capital: A skill-weights approach.
  148. (2005). Firm-sponsored general training,
  149. (2000). From mill down to board room: The rise of women's paid labor,
  150. (2003). From preference to happiness: Towards a more complete welfare economics,
  151. (2005). Games and discrimination: Lessons from the weakest link,
  152. (2003). Gender and labour market performance in the recovery. In, The labour market under new labour: The state of working Britain,
  153. (1996). Gender and race differences in company training,
  154. (2000). Gender and racial discrimination in pay and promotion for NHS nurses, Oxford Bulletin ofEconomics and Statistics
  155. (2001). Gender differences in job satisfaction and labour market participation: UK evidence from propensity score estimates, Discussion Paper,
  156. (1996). Gender differences in the returns to and the acquisition of on-the-job training,
  157. (1991). Gender discrimination in the British labour market: A reassessment,
  158. (1997). Gender discrimination in training: A note,
  159. (1994). Gender discrimination in training: An Australian perspective,
  160. (1994). Gender roles and human capital investment: The relationship between traditional attitudes and female labour force performance,
  161. (1995). Gender segregation in small firms,
  162. (2003). Gender wage differentials in the UK: The role of job search and part-time employment, available from htti): //www.
  163. (2000). Gender, race, pay and promotion in the British nursing profession: Estimation of a generalised ordered probit model,
  164. (1999). General and specific training: Evidence and implications,
  165. (1996). Glass ceilings or dead ends: Job promotion of men and women compared,
  166. (2000). Growth in women's relative wages and in inequality among men: One phenomenon or two?
  167. (1997). Happiness and economic performance,
  168. (2000). Happiness, economy and institutions,
  169. (2005). Heterogeneity in reported well-being: Evidence from twelve European countries,
  170. (2000). High performance workplaces, training and the distribution of skills,
  171. (1999). High wage workers and high wage firms,
  172. (2000). How far can I trust it? Job satisfaction data in the WERS98 employee survey. Working Paper 4: ESCR Work Centrality and Careers Project,
  173. (2004). How important is methodology for the estimates of the determinants of happiness?
  174. (1999). How unequally has Equal Pay progressed since the 1970s? A study of two British cohorts,
  175. (1995). Human capital and the earnings gap,
  176. (1996). Human capital investment under asymmetric information: The Pigovian conjectured revisited,
  177. (1985). Human capital, effort, and the sexual division of labour,
  178. (1980). Human satisfaction and public policy,
  179. (1998). If you're happy and you know it ... job satisfaction in the low wage service sector, Discussion Paper no. 405, Centre for Economic Performance, London School ofEconomics.
  180. (2005). Implicit discrimination, American Economic Review (Papers and Proceedings)
  181. (2000). Improving nurse retention in the British National Health Service: The impact of job satisfaction on intentions to quit,
  182. (2001). Income and happiness: Towards a unified approach,
  183. (2005). Income and well-being. What can we learn from subjective data?
  184. (1949). Income, saving and the theory of consumer behaviour.
  185. (1980). Incorporating occupational attainment in studies of female/male earnings differentials,
  186. (1994). Increasing the job satisfaction of service personnel,
  187. (2000). Industry specific capital and the wage profile: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and the Panel Study of Income Dynamics,
  188. (1995). Industry-specific human capital: Evidence from displaced workers,
  189. (2004). Inequality in America: What role for human capital policies? Massachusetts Institute of
  190. (1989). Inter-industry studies of structure and performance,
  191. (1976). Interdependent preferences,
  192. (1998). Interfinn segregation and the black/white wage gap.
  193. (1990). Investment in general training: The role of information in labour mobility,
  194. (1962). Investment in human capital: A theoretical analysis,
  195. (2003). Is the convergence of the racial wage gap illusory? NBER Working Paper No.
  196. (2003). Is there a glass ceiling in Sweden?
  197. (2002). Is training more frequent when wage compression is higher? Evidence from II European Countries, CESifio Working
  198. (2004). Is wage compression necessary for training? Oxford Economic Papers 56,88-97.
  199. (1987). Job discrimination, market forces, and the invisibility hypothesis,
  200. (2005). Job satisfaction and gender segregation,
  201. (1997). Job satisfaction and gender: Why women are so happy at work?,
  202. (1985). Job satisfaction and job performance: A meta-analysis,
  203. (1978). Job satisfaction as an economic variable,
  204. (1996). Job satisfaction in Britain,
  205. (1935). Job satisfaction,
  206. (2000). Job satisfaction, comparison earnings, and gender,
  207. (1993). Job satisfaction, organisational commitment, turnover intention, and turnover: Path analysis based on meta-analytic findings,
  208. (1998). Job satisfaction, trade unions, and exit-voice revisited,
  209. (1998). Job satisfaction, wage changes and quits: Evidence from Germany,
  210. (1979). Job Satisfaction, wages and unions,
  211. (2002). Job satisfaction: A comparison of standard, non-standard, and selfemployment patterns across Europe with a special note to the gender/job Satisfaction paradox, Working Paper DIW-Berlin.
  212. (1996). Job satisfaction: A review of the literature, available from http: //Geocities. com/Paris/Caafe/5 83 9/writings/satisfaction. html
  213. (1991). Job-related formal training: Who receives it and what is worth of? Oxford Bulletin ofEconomics and Statistics
  214. (1998). Job-to-job and job-to-nonemployment turnover by gender and education level,
  215. (1982). Labor contracts as partial gift exchange,
  216. (1983). Labor market discrimination against Hispanic and black men, Review ofEconomics and Statistics
  217. (1967). Labor market discrimination: An interpretation of income differences in the rural south,
  218. (1992). Labor supply preferences, hours constraints, and hours-wage tradeoffs,
  219. (1993). Labour marker segmentation theory: Reconsidering the evidence,
  220. (1995). Labour market discrimination, pay inequality and effort variability: An alternative to neoclassical model,
  221. (1996). Labour market institutions and the distribution of wages, 1973-1992: A semi-parametric approach,
  222. (2000). Labour-market dropouts and the racial wage gap: 1940-1990, American Economic Review (Papers and
  223. (2001). Learning and earning: Do multiple training events pay? A decade of evidence from a cohort of young British men,
  224. (1999). LEEping into the future of labor economics: The research potential of linking employer and employee data,
  225. (1983). Limited dependent variables and qualitative variables in econometrics, Econometric Society Monographs,
  226. (1999). Luxury fever: Why money fails to satisfy in an em of excess.
  227. (1999). Male interracial wage differentials: Competing explanations,
  228. (1989). Male-female wage differentials and policy responses,
  229. (1990). Male-female wage differentials in job ladders,
  230. (1973). Male-female wage differentials in urban labor markets,
  231. (1980). Male-female wage differentials: Is marriage an equal opportunity?
  232. (1987). Marital status, child rearing and earnings differentials in the graduate market,
  233. (2002). Market forces and sex Discrimination,
  234. (1992). Market, firms, and the management of labour in modem Britain, Cambridge,
  235. (1999). Measuring preferences by subjective well-being,
  236. (1986). Measuring racial discrimination with fair housing audits: caught in the act,
  237. (2000). Measuring the employer's return on investments in training: Evidence from the literature,
  238. (2002). Minimum wages, employment and monopsonistic competition, Discussion Paper 548,
  239. (2006). Modem labor economics. 'Ibeory and public policy, Ninth Edition, Pearson International Edition.
  240. (2003). Monopsony in motion: Imperfect competition in labour markets,
  241. (2000). Movin' on up: Interpreting the earnings-experience profile,
  242. (1991). Multitask principal-agent analyses: Incentive contracts, asset ownership and job design,
  243. (2003). New evidence on sex segregation and sex differences in wages from matched employer-employee data,
  244. (2000). Non-pecuniary advantages versus pecuniary disadvantages; job satisfaction among male and female academics in Scottish universities,
  245. (1918). Nonparametric maximum likelihood estimation of a mixing distribution,
  246. (2003). Now you see it, now you don't: Why do real estate agents withhold available houses from black customers?
  247. (1995). Nursing in a multi-ethnic NHS. London: Policy Studies Institute.
  248. (1974). Occupational segregation, wages and profits when employers discriminate by sex,
  249. (1985). Occupational segregation: A defense of human capital predictions,
  250. (1985). Occupational segregation: Rejoinder to Polachek,
  251. (1985). Occupational segregation: Reply to England,
  252. (1994). Of hats and cattle: Or the limits of macro-survey research in industrial relations?
  253. (1997). On measuring segregation in samples with small units,
  254. (1979). On the job training and gender differences by race and sex, Review ofEconomics and Statistics
  255. (1988). On the mechanisms of economic development,
  256. (2001). On the validity of utility statements: Standard theory versus Duensberry's,
  257. (2000). On-the-job specific training and efficient screening,
  258. (2004). One measure of segregation,
  259. (1991). Ordinal and cardinal utility: An integration of the two dimensions of the welfare concept,
  260. (1993). Parametric and semi-parametric modelling of vacation expenditures,
  261. (2005). Partisan social happiness, Review ofEconomic Studies,
  262. (1993). Pay differences among the highly paid: The male-female earnings gap in lawyers' salaries,
  263. (2000). Pay differentials, discrimination and worker grievances,
  264. (1999). Percentage of work-group diversity and workgroup effectiveness,
  265. (1999). Persistence of interindustry wage differentials: A reexamination using matched worker-firm panel data,
  266. (2000). Persistent discrimination: Racial disparity in the United States, 1967-1988, American Economic Review (Papers and
  267. (1998). Persistent disparity: Race and economic inequality in the Unites States since
  268. (2000). Policies to foster human capital. Chicago: Irving B. Harris Graduate School of Public Policy Studies,
  269. (2003). power models and sex at the IZA Workshop: The Nature of
  270. (1983). Private discrimination and social intervention in a competitive labour market,
  271. (1993). Private sector training and graduate earnings. Review ofEconomics and Statistics
  272. (1992). Private sector training and the earnings of young workers,
  273. (1992). Private sector training: Who gets it and what are its effects,
  274. (1999). Productivity differences across e. mployers: The roles of employer size, age and human capital, American Economic Review (Papers and
  275. (1998). Promotion, turnover, and discretionary human capital acquisition,
  276. (1994). Psychometric Theory.
  277. (1996). Public-private sector hourly earnings in the UK: A decile-based decomposition of the QFLS.
  278. (1989). Questions on happiness: Classical topics, modem answers, blind spots, in Subjective Well-Being: An Interdisciplinary Perspective.
  279. (1995). Race and gender discrimination in bargaining for a new car,
  280. (1999). Race and gender in the labor market,
  281. (1981). Race differences in job satisfaction: A reappraisal,
  282. (2000). Racial and ethnic economic inequality:
  283. (1988). Racial and gender differences in the returns to private sector training for young workers, Industrial Relations Research Association Proceedings,
  284. (2001). Racial bias in motor vehicles searches: Theory and evidence,
  285. (1983). Racial discrimination and occupational attainment in Britain,
  286. (1968). Reference groups re-examined,
  287. (1982). Regret in decision making under uncertainty,
  288. (1966). Relative deprivation and social justice.
  289. (1980). Relative female earnings in Britain and the impact of legislation,
  290. (2003). Relative pay and job satisfaction: Some new evidence, Working Paper 2003145,
  291. (2001). Relative-Income Effects on Subjective Well-Being in the Cross.
  292. (1997). Rent-sharing and wages: Evidence from company and establishment panels,
  293. (1998). Reported Job Satisfaction: What Does it Mean? CIRANO,
  294. (1987). Residual analysis in the grouped and censored Normal linear model,
  295. (2003). Revealed stochastic preference: A synthesis, available from http: //emiab.
  296. (1986). Salaries and piece rates,
  297. (1979). Sample selection bias as a specification effor,
  298. (1996). Satisfaction and comparison income,
  299. (1988). Satisfaction, market wages, and labor relations: An airline study,
  300. (2001). Scarring: The psychological impact of past unemployment,
  301. (1992). School quality and black-white relative earnings: A direct assessment,
  302. (2003). Search, bargaining and employer discrimination,
  303. (1993). Semi-parametric estimation of a work-trip choice model,
  304. (1991). Sex discrimination in access to job-related training,
  305. (1985). Sex role socialization and labor market outcomes, American Economic Review (Papers and
  306. (1961). Social behaviour: Its elementary forms.
  307. (1997). Social distance and social decisions,
  308. (1992). Social norms, savings behaviour, and growth.
  309. (2002). Social psychology, (1& edition).
  310. (1972). Some mathematical models of race discrimination in the labor market,
  311. (2004). Something in the way she moves: A fresh look at an old gap,
  312. (1977). Statistical theories of discrimination in labor markets,
  313. (1997). Swimming upstream: Trends in the gender wage differential in the 1980's,
  314. (2000). Taking another look at the gender/job satisfaction paradox,
  315. (2002). Technical change, inequality and the labor market,
  316. (1998). Technological change and the skill acquisition of young workers,
  317. (2002). Temporary jobs: Stepping stones or dead ends.
  318. (2005). Testing for employee discrimination using matched employer-employee data: Theory and evidence,
  319. (2005). Testing some predictions of human capital theory: New training evidence from Britain, Review ofEconomics and
  320. (2003). Testing theories of discrimination: Evidence from the weakest link, NBER Working Paper 9449.
  321. (1985). Tests of specification in
  322. (1949). The American soldier.
  323. (2002). The anatomy of racial inequality,
  324. (2002). The anatomy of subjective well-being,
  325. (2000). The changing distribution of male wages in the UK, Review ofEconomic
  326. (2001). The changing gender gap across the wage distribution in the U.
  327. (1995). The changing nature of the employment contract,
  328. (2002). The consequences of the decline in public sector pay in Britain: A little bit of evidence,
  329. (1990). The crowding hypothesis and comparable worth,
  330. (1997). The definition of part-time work for the purpose of international comparisons, OECD: Labour Market and Social Policy Occasional Papers no.
  331. (1985). The demand for unobservable and other non-positional goods,
  332. (2001). The detenninants of earnings: A behavioral approach,
  333. (1996). The determinants and effects of work related training in Britain, The Institutefor Fiscal Studies,
  334. (2002). The determinants of racial harassment at the workplace: Evidence from the NHS nursing profession,
  335. (1993). The determinants of training of female and male employees
  336. (1997). The dispositional. model of job attitudes revisited: Findings of aI 0-year study,
  337. (2001). The division of spoils: Rent-sharing and discrimination in a regulated industry,
  338. (2003). The dynamic implications of search discrimination,
  339. (1971). The economics of discrimination (2nd edition).
  340. (1963). The economics of discrimination,
  341. (1957). The economics of discrimination.
  342. (1998). The economics of gender, Second Edition,
  343. (1974). The economics of racial discrimination: A survey,
  344. (1997). The economics of training, in the Human Resource Management Handbook,
  345. (2003). The economics of training: A survey of the literature, Discussion paper,
  346. (1993). The economics of training.
  347. (1998). The economics of women,
  348. (1988). The effect of changes in Britain's industrial structure on female relative pay and employment,
  349. (1977). The effect of public policies on the demand for education,
  350. (1993). The effect of trade unions on training in
  351. (1971). The effect on white incomes of discrimination in employment,
  352. (1987). The effects and determinants of training,
  353. (1996). The effects of job turnover on the training of men and women,
  354. (2001). The effects of race and sex discrimination laws,
  355. (2003). The effects of statistical discrimination on black-white wage differentials: Estimating a model with multiple equilibria,
  356. (1996). The effects of training, further education and YTS on the earnings of young employees,
  357. (1989). The employer size-wage effect,
  358. (1991). The Enforcement of Equal Opportunity Laws under imperfect information: Affirmative Action and alternatives,
  359. (1998). The ethnic wage gap and employment differentials in the 1990s: Evidence for Britain,
  360. (1988). The failure of training in Britain: Analysis and prescriptions, Oxford Review ofEconomic Policy
  361. (1997). The frame of reference as a public good,
  362. (2004). The gender earnings gap in Britain,
  363. (1992). The gender earnings gap:
  364. (1996). The gender earnings gap: Evidence from the UK.
  365. (2003). The gender gap in wages: Circa
  366. (1977). The government's impact on the labor market status of black Americans: A critical review,
  367. (1984). The impact of non-traditional training on the occupational attainment of women,
  368. (1991). The impact of surplus schooling on work productivity,
  369. (2000). The impact of training on labour mobility: Individual and firm-level evidence from Britain,
  370. (1993). The impact of training on the frequency and duration of employment,
  371. (2001). The impact of unionization on the incidence of the sources of payment for training in Canada: A study based on the adult education and training survey, Discussion paper,
  372. (2001). The importance of non-cognitive skills: Lessons from the GED testing program,
  373. (1997). The incidence and duration of work. related training in Britain, mimeo
  374. (2000). The incidence of on-the-job training. An empirical analysis using Swedish data, Working Paper 612000, Swedish Economic Institute.
  375. (1980). The interpretation of dummy variables in semilogarithmic equations,
  376. (2004). The long road to the fast track: Career and family,
  377. (1976). The nature and causes of job satisfaction,
  378. (1993). The O-ring theory of economic development,
  379. (1999). The payment of public sector workers in the UK: Reconciliation with North-American findings,
  380. (1986). The perception of poverty,
  381. (1999). The possibility of social choice,
  382. (2002). The power of the pill: Oral contraceptives and women's career and marriage decisions,
  383. (1999). The provision of incentives in finns,
  384. (1987). The psychology of happiness.
  385. (1992). The relationship between satisfaction, attitudes and performance: An organisational level analysis,
  386. (1990). The relationship between unions and job satisfaction,
  387. (2000). The rise of female professionals: Are women responding to skill demand?
  388. (1999). The Rising Well-Being of the Young, Discussion paper,
  389. (1989). The role of discrimination in determining occupational structure,
  390. (1991). The role of off-the-job vs. on-the-job training on the mobility of women workers,
  391. (1986). The role of personality and tastes in determining occupational structure,
  392. (1996). The role of pre-marker factors in black-white wage differences,
  393. (1972). The statistical theory of racism and sexism,
  394. (1991). The structure of the female/male wage differential: Is it who you are, what you do, or where you work?
  395. (1999). The structure of wages and investment in general training,
  396. (1973). The theory of discrimination,
  397. (1997). The time bind: When work becomes home & home becomes work.
  398. (1992). The Urban Institute audit studies: Their methods and findings, in Clear and Convincing Evidence: Measurement of discrimination
  399. (2004). The US gender pay gap in the 1990s: Slowing convergence,
  400. (2001). The use of sampling weights in the analysis of the 1998 Workplace Employee Relations Survey, available from http:
  401. (1999). The Workplace Employee Relations Survey,
  402. (1963). Toward an understanding of inequity,
  403. (2003). Trade union presence and employer-provided training in
  404. (1990). Trade unions and job satisfaction,
  405. (1999). Trade unions and training practices in British workplaces,
  406. (2003). Training and establishment survival, Discussion paper University ofKent,
  407. (1998). Training and labour market flexibility: Is there a trade-off?
  408. (1994). Training and the private sector: International comparisons.
  409. (1994). Training during the recession,
  410. (2004). Training during the recession, Work; employment and society 8,199-219.
  411. (1989). Training in Britain: Individual's perspectives,
  412. (1999). Training the workers. In
  413. (1995). Training, wage growth, and job performance: Evidence from a company database,
  414. (1997). Trends in the training of male and female workers in the United Kingdom,
  415. (1998). Trends in the well-being of American women, 1970-1995,
  416. (2004). Twenty years of rising inequality
  417. (2003). Understanding international differences in the gender pay gap,
  418. (2001). Understanding international differences in the gender pay gap, Working Paper 8200, NBER,
  419. (2003). Unemployment as a social norm: Psychological evidence from panel data,
  420. (1997). Unequal advancement and unequal promotion in job ladders,
  421. (1998). Unequal Pay for Women and Men: Evidence from the British Cohorts.
  422. (1994). Unhappiness and unemployment,
  423. (1987). Union effects on job attitudes,
  424. (2002). Union effects on pay levels in
  425. (1998). Unions and efficient training,
  426. (2004). Unions, training, and firm performance: Evidence from the British workplace Employee Relations Survey,
  427. (1998). Unravelling supply and demand factors in work-related training,
  428. (2001). Update to random effects ordered probit,
  429. (1983). Using sample survey weights in multiple rcgression analyses of stratified samples,
  430. (1999). Vulnerable seniors: Unions, tenure and wage following ýeiiýafte'nt job loss,
  431. (2000). Wage differences by gender: Evidence from recently graduated MBAS, Oxford Bulletin ofEconomics and Statistics
  432. (2000). Wage differentials across firms: An application of multilevel modelling,
  433. (1973). Wage discrimination: Reduced form and structural estimates,
  434. (2000). Wage inequality and segregation by skill,
  435. (1993). Wage inequality and the rise in retums to skill,
  436. (1996). Wage inequality in the UK,
  437. (1993). Wage offers and full-time and part-time Employment by British women,
  438. (1996). Wage structure and gender earnings differentials: An international comparison,
  439. (1990). Wages, employer costs, and employee performance in the firm,
  440. (1999). Wages, productivity and worker characteristics. Evidence from plant-level production functions and wage equations,
  441. (1996). Wages, profits and rent sharing,
  442. (2004). Wages, sorting on skill, and the racial composition ofjobs,
  443. (1999). Well-being, insecurity and the decline of American job satisfaction. Working Paper,
  444. (2003). Wellbeing over time in Britain and the USA,
  445. (2002). What Can Economists Learn From Happiness Research?
  446. (2001). What has been happening to the quality of workers' lives in Britain, Discussion paper,
  447. (1998). What has economics to say about racial discrimination?
  448. (1999). What has happened to the union wage differential
  449. (1998). What makes an entrepreneur,
  450. (1992). What went wrong? The erosion of relative earnings and employment among young black men in the 1980's,
  451. (2005). What will I be when I grow up? An analysis of child expectations and career outcomes,
  452. (2004). What's driving the new economy?: The benefits of workplace innovation,
  453. (1989). What's left of the economic theory of discrimination?
  454. (2001). Which is the fair sex? Gender differences in altruism,
  455. (2002). White/ethnic minority earnings and employment differentials
  456. (2000). Who benefits from employee participation? firms or workers? American Economic Review (Papers and
  457. (2000). Who gains when workers train? training and corporate productivity in a panel of British industries,
  458. (1997). Who gets over the training hurdle? A study of the training experiences of young men and women in Britain.
  459. (2002). Who pays for general training? New evidence for British men and women,
  460. (2001). Who should invest in firin specific training? Discussion paper,
  461. (1999). Why are racial and ethnic wage gaps larger for men than for women? Exploring the role of segregation using the new worker-establishment characteristics database,
  462. (2002). Why do employers pay for college?
  463. (1998). Why do finns train? Theory and evidence,
  464. (2001). Why do temporary help firms provide free general training skills training?
  465. (1993). Why the gender gap narrowed in the 1980's,
  466. (1993). Will Affirmative-Action policies eliminate negative stereotypes?
  467. (2005). Women-led firms and the gender gap in top executive jobs,
  468. (1998). Women's advancement in corporate and professional Canada. Ottawa: The Conference Board of Canada.
  469. (1991). Work characteristics, firm size and wages, Review ofEconomics and Statistics
  470. (2005). Work intensification, discretion and the decline in well-being at work,
  471. (1991). Worker characteristics, job characteristics and the receipt of on-the-job training,
  472. (2004). Worker reciprocity and employer investment in training,
  473. (2002). Worker sorting and job satisfaction: The case of union and government jobs,
  474. (2004). Worker's education, spillovers and productivity: Evidence from plant level production functions,
  475. (1999). Workers are more productive in large firms,
  476. (1993). Workforce training in the Thatcher era: Market forces and marker failures,
  477. (2004). Workplace segregation in the United States: Race, ethnicity, and skill, Working Paper No.
  478. (1992). Young, female and black.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.